40 days English and Jingpho conversation with Flores.

Hello!
This is KYUHWAN, your contact at All in one Language!


In this session, we will learn a conversation in English and Jinghpaw languages using the 'Flores200' data provided by 'MetaAI.' This data consists of a total of 997 sentences, so if you read 25 sentences per day, you can see your language skills improve within 40 days.


Furthermore, this data has translations in the same content for 204 languages, so you can use the blog search function at the top to search for the desired language. However, please note that this data will be reflected in the blog starting from June 2023, and it takes six months for all the data to be incorporated. If the language you search for is not available, it means it hasn't been included yet, so please understand.

The language list is provided at the bottom of this post.


[Day1]

English : On Monday, scientists from the Stanford University School of Medicine announced the invention of a new diagnostic tool that can sort cells by type: a tiny printable chip that can be manufactured using standard inkjet printers for possibly about one U.S. cent each.

Jingpho : But shani hta Stanford dakkasu tsi dap kaw na hpungtang hpaji ninghkring ni gaw U.S grumhpraw pyek mi nga ai hte mai mari na laika tsi hte mai shaprawt ai cells ni hpe mai garan chye ai hkamja lam jep ai jak hpe lu galaw shapraw la ma ai.



English : Lead researchers say this may bring early detection of cancer, tuberculosis, HIV and malaria to patients in low-income countries, where the survival rates for illnesses such as breast cancer can be half those of richer countries.

Jingpho : Ndai arai hkyep gaw sinda mawng ana hpe sut su ai mungdan ni daram n lu tsi la lu ai matsan ai mungdan hkan na machyi masha ni byin chye ai mawng ana, sinwawp ana, HIV hte hkali ana ni hpe jau jau tam mu mai wa na re ngu sawk sagawn magam galaw ai ni tsun ma ai.



English : The JAS 39C Gripen crashed onto a runway at around 9:30 am local time (0230 UTC) and exploded, closing the airport to commercial flights.

Jingpho : JAS 39C Gripen mying ai pyenli gaw, buga gindai ten 0230 UTC hta hpaga pyenli daru hte grai ni ai shara pyenli gat lam kaw hkrat nna kapaw ga mat ai.



English : The pilot was identified as Squadron Leader Dilokrit Pattavee.

Jingpho : Dai nbungli gau ai wa hpe Squadron a ning baw Dilokrit Pattavee ngu maram chye lu ai.



English : Local media reports an airport fire vehicle rolled over while responding.

Jingpho : Buga shiga dap kaw na shapoi ai lam gaw, mahtai ginhtang taw nga ai shaloi nbungli daru wan sat madaw langai myi gaw lai wa sai re.



English : 28-year-old Vidal had joined Barça three seasons ago, from Sevilla.

Jingpho : Asak 28 ning kaba ai Vidal gaw lai wa sai shata masum hta Sevilla kaw na Barca de shang lai wa sai re.



English : Since moving to the Catalan-capital, Vidal had played 49 games for the club.

Jingpho : Catalan mare ninghpum de htawt sit wa ai kaw na Vidal gaw ginsup hpung a matu ginsup poi 49 hpe ginsup lai wa sai re.



English : The protest started around 11:00 local time (UTC+1) on Whitehall opposite the police-guarded entrance to Downing Street, the Prime Minister´s official residence.

Jingpho : Ninghkap hpung gaw buga aten 11:00 (UTC+1) hta Whitehall lam maw ntsa Hkingmang Daju a tara shang nga shara, Downing Lam de shang na matu makawp pyada uhpung hpe man hkrum na rawt sa hpang ma ai.



English : Just after 11:00, protesters blocked traffic on the northbound carriage in Whitehall.

Jingpho : 11:00 hpang kaw na, Whitehall dingdung shara kaw na pat ai shara hpe myit nhkrum ai ninghkap masha ni gaw lam hpe pat da ma ai.



English : At 11:20, the police asked the protesters to move back on to the pavement, stating that they needed to balance the right to protest with the traffic building up.

Jingpho : Aten 11:20 hta dai masha ni hpe lam makau de sit na matu tsun wa ai, dai lam pat ai nta ni hpe atsawm lajang na matu ngu shana wa ai.



English : Around 11:29, the protest moved up Whitehall, past Trafalgar Square, along the Strand, passing by Aldwych and up Kingsway towards Holborn where the Conservative Party were holding their Spring Forum in the Grand Connaught Rooms hotel.

Jingpho : 11:29 ram hta, ninghkap ai hpung ni gaw Tralfalgar Square hpe lai kau nna Whitehall lam de hka kau mayan hku hkan nna Aldwych hte Kingsway manam jarawt ntsa hku lai mat nna, mungding htung hkan mayu ai hpung ni a shanhte a machyan htawngshi ta na bawngban pawng galaw nga ai shara Grand Connaught Rooms manam jarawp nga ai Holborn ginra de rawt lung lai wa ma ai.



English : Nadal´s head to head record against the Canadian is 7–2.

Jingpho : Nadal gaw Canadian hte man hkrum ginsup ai kaw 7-2 hte dang nna ka matsing da hkrum sai.



English : He recently lost against Raonic in the Brisbane Open.

Jingpho : Shi gaw ndai laman sha Raonic hpe Brisbane hpaw poi hta sha sum da ai rai nga ai.



English : Nadal bagged 88% net points in the match winning 76 points in the first serve.

Jingpho : Nadal gaw ginsup lamang 88% hta amat 76 hte shawng lu nna dang ai.



English : After the match, King of Clay said, ¨I am just excited about being back in the final rounds of the most important events. I am here to try to win this.¨

Jingpho : Shingjawng lamang ngut ai hpang King of Clay tsun ai, ¨Ndai ahkyak dik ai lamang re ai ninggang gashun ai de bai du wa ai gaw myit loi kahpra ai. Ngai du sa wa ai ndai ninggang hpe dang na matu re.¨



English : ¨Panama Papers¨ is an umbrella term for roughly ten million documents from Panamanian law firm Mossack Fonseca, leaked to the press in spring 2016.

Jingpho : 2016 ning machyan htawng shi ta hta ¨Panama Laika pa¨ ngu ai gaw Mossack Fonseka a Panama tara upadi kaw na wan shi hku re ai matsing ninghting laika pa ni a ga si ga ngau re.



English : The documents showed fourteen banks helped wealthy clients hide billions of US dollars of wealth to avoid taxes and other regulations.

Jingpho : Matsing laika ni gaw sut su ai ni US gumhpraw wan hkying hku re lu ai hpe makoi kau nna ahkun hkangse hte kaga rip kawp tara ni hpe koi yen na matu gumhpraw dum shi mali gaw shanhte hpe karum ya ai nga madun da ai.



English : British newspaper The Guardian suggested Deutsche Bank controlled roughly a third of the 1200 shell companies used to accomplish this.

Jingpho : British shi laika The Guardian gaw Deutsche Gumhpraw dum gaw ndai hpe awngdang da ga ai kawp sha nga ai kompani 1200 a htam masum na htam mi hpe jum tek da ai nga na shiga shapru da sai.



English : There were protests worldwide, several criminal prosecutions, and the leaders of the governments of Iceland and Pakistan both resigned.

Jingpho : Mungkan ting n-gun madun ninghkap ai lam, ru hka amu hte seng ai tara jun ai lam hte Iceland hte Pakistan mungdan a asuya lahkawng kaw na ningbaw ni bungli hkring mat ai lam ni nga lai wa sai re.



English : Born in Hong Kong, Ma studied at New York University and Harvard Law School and once held an American permanent resident ¨green card¨.

Jingpho : Hong Kong kaw shangai nna, MA hpe New York dakkasu hte Harvard upadi jawng kaw sharin la nna kalang ta American kaw dingyang shanu nga na ahkang jaw lak mat(mai nga ai Card) hpe lang da ai.



English : Hsieh implied during the election that Ma might flee the country during a time of crisis.

Jingpho : Mungdan ningbaw lata ai shaloi Hsieh ga jaw ai gaw Ma gaw mungdan ya ai aten pru mat wa na re ngu tsu wa ai.



English : Hsieh also argued that the photogenic Ma was more style than substance.

Jingpho : Hsieh ninghkap tsun ai gaw sumla hta tsawm ai Ma gaw arung arai hta grau kaja ai lai shingni rai nga ai.



English : Despite these accusations, Ma won handily on a platform advocating closer ties with the Chinese mainland.

Jingpho : Ndai hka jun ai lam ni nga tim, Ma gaw kanu mungdang Miwa mung a htep lahti madi shadaw tsun karum rum ai lam hte atsawm dang kau lu ai.



English : Today´s Player of the Day is Alex Ovechkin of the Washington Capitals.

Jingpho : Dai ni na hkrak dik htum ginsup ninghkring gaw Washington mumlum na Alex Ovechkin rai nga ai.



English : He had 2 goals and 2 assists in Washington´s 5-3 win over the Atlanta Thrashers.

Jingpho : Shi gaw Atlanta Thrashers hpe 5-3 hte dang ai hta goal 2 lu nna shi Washington a matu 2 lang karum ya wa ai.



[Day2]

English : Ovechkin´s first assist of the night was on the game-winning goal by rookie Nicklas Backstrom;

Jingpho : Nicklas Backstrom hpe Ovechkin na dai shana shawng nna madi sadaw ai gaw dai jinsup ai lama hta dang wa na matu goal re.



English : his second goal of the night was his 60th of the season, becoming the first player to score 60 or more goals in a season since 1995-96, when Jaromir Jagr and Mario Lemieux each reached that milestone.

Jingpho : dai shana na shi a goal lahkawng ngu na gaw dai num daw a shi lu bang ai 60th ngu na goal re, Jaromir Jagr hte Mario Lemieux yan dai pandung lu du ai ten, dai gaw 1995-96 kaw na goal 60 (sh) jan hkra lu du ai shang nnan na ginsup ninghkring byin wa sai.



English : Batten was ranked 190th on the 2008 400 Richest Americans list with an estimated fortune of $2.3 billion.

Jingpho : Batten gaw 2008 hta 190th tsang madang hta nga ai, American a lu su dik 4000 jahpan hta lawm nna ntsa lam maram da ai gaw billion $2.3 nga ai.



English : He graduated from the College of Arts & Sciences of the University of Virginia in 1950 and was a significant donor to that institution.

Jingpho : Shi gaw Virginia Dakkasu a Shingni hte hpungtang hpaji hkawlik jawng kaw shaning 1950 hta jan mau gup la ai re nna dai hpung a alak mi re ai gam jaw ya ai wa mung rai lai wa sai re.



English : Iraq´s Abu Ghraib prison has been set alight during a riot.

Jingpho : Iraq na Abu Ghraib bawng masha gaw kasu kabrawng byin ai laman hta rim dat ai.



English : The jail became notorious after prisoner abuse was discovered there after US forces took over.

Jingpho : US hpyen dap ni shara la ai hpang bawng masha ni zing ri hkrum ai brawng mat wa ai majaw hkyuk htawng gaw nkaja ai hku myit kaba mat ai.



English : Piquet Jr. crashed in the 2008 Singapore Grand Prix just after an early pit stop for Fernando Alonso, bringing out the safety car.

Jingpho : Piquet Jr. gaw 2008 na Singapore Grand Prix mawdaw shingjaw poi hta Fernando Alonso a matu shim ai mawdaw hpe gan sa la taw ai aten kaw sha mawdaw adawt hkrum ai.



English : As the cars ahead of Alonso went in for fuel under the safety car, he moved up the pack to take victory.

Jingpho : Alonso de sa taw ai mawdaw gaw shimlum ai mawdaw npu kaw na tsau bang na matu sa mat ai, shi gaw awngdan na matu dai hpe tsit kau ai.



English : Piquet Jr. was sacked after the 2009 Hungarian Grand Prix.

Jingpho : Shaning 2009 Hungarian Grand Prix ngut ai hpang Piquet Jr. hpe bungli shapraw kau ai.



English : At exactly 8:46 a.m. a hush fell across the city, marking the exact moment the first jet struck its target.

Jingpho : 8:46 a.m tup hta shawng nnan jet nbungli gaw mare kaba hpe azim sha lai nna yaw shada da ai shara hta hkrak tup re aten kaw bawm jahkrat mat ai.



English : Two beams of light have been rigged up to point skywards overnight.

Jingpho : Lamu de madun na matu wan shadaw lahkawng hpe shana tup sharawt tawn da ai.



English : Construction is ongoing for five new skyscrapers at the site, with a transportation center and memorial park in the middle.

Jingpho : Myit dum shingran nam pan sun hte sa chyai ai ka-ang lapran hta lamu mada wahpang manga hpe gaw gap ding yang re nga ai.



English : The PBS show has more than two-dozen Emmy awards, and its run is shorter only than Sesame Street and Mister Rogers´ Neighborhood.

Jingpho : PBS lamang hta Emmy kumhpa dazin lahkawng daram jaw ai ngut nna dai gaw Sesame lam hte Mister Rogers nta makau daram sha lagat ai re.



English : Each episode of the show would focus on a theme in a specific book and then explore that theme through multiple stories.

Jingpho : Dai lamang ni gaw laika buk kaw na madung ni hpe galaw da ai ngut nna dai madung law law ngai mawng moi ni hpe hkaja u.



English : Each show would also provide recommendations for books that children should look for when they went to their library.

Jingpho : Dai madun ai shagu hta ma ni shanhte laika sa ai shaloi gara zawn re laika ni hpe tam mai ai hpe mung madi shadaw da ai karum da na re.



English : John Grant, from WNED Buffalo (Reading Rainbow´s home station) said ¨Reading Rainbow taught kids why to read,... the love of reading — [the show] encouraged kids to pick up a book and to read.¨

Jingpho : WNED Buffalo kaw na John Grant ( laika hti ai ngoi latung a nta shara) tsun ai gaw laika hti ai ngoi latung lam gaw ma ni hpe hpa majaw laika hti ai, hpa majaw laika hti ai hpe ra ai - (lamang) gaw ma ni hpe laika bok hte laika hti wa na matu ngun jaw ya ai lamang re.



English : It is believed by some, including John Grant, that both the funding crunch and a shift in the philosophy of educational television programming contributed to ending the series.

Jingpho : John Grant na gumhpraw ma ai hte laika hpaji myit ai lam ni a television lamang ni shai wa ai ni+F158 gaw ngut wa sai ngut kam ma ai.



English : The storm, situated about 645 miles (1040 km) west of the Cape Verde islands, is likely to dissipate before threatening any land areas, forecasters say.

Jingpho : Cape Verde zinlawng a sinna maga na 645 deng (1040km) ram hta nga ai, mawru gaw lamu ga shara gara hpe tim shahkri shama ai lam ndu shi yang hkoi mat na zawn re ai, nga tau hkrau tak maram ai ni tsun ai.



English : Fred currently has winds of 105 miles per hour (165 km/h) and is moving towards the northwest.

Jingpho : Fred gaw hkying hkum mi hta ya yang deng 105 (165 km/h) nbung nga ai, dai gaw sinna dingdung maga shamu taw ai.



English : Fred is the strongest tropical cyclone ever recorded so far south and east in the Atlantic since the advent of satellite imagery, and only the third major hurricane on record east of 35°W.

Jingpho : Jak shagan hte sumla gayet ai lam du wa ai aten kaw Fred gaw ya ten du hkra Atlantic a dingda maga hte sinpraw maga kaw masat shadawn lai wa ai bunghpoi laru kaba kaw n-gun ja dik htum rai nga nna sinpraw maga de na 35° W kaw masat shadawn ai kaw nambat masum kaba htum ai nbung laru rai nga ai.



English : On September 24, 1759, Arthur Guinness signed a 9,000 year lease for the St James´ Gate Brewery in Dublin, Ireland.

Jingpho : Shaning 1759 ning shata man chyhku 24 ya hta, Arthur Guinness gaw Ireland, Dublin hta St James a Gate Brewery a matu shaning 9,000 ning shap sha ga sadi laika hta lakmat htu sai.



English : 250 years later, Guinness has grown to a global business that turns over 10 billion euros (US$14.7 billion) every year.

Jingpho : Shaning 250 hpang, Guinness gaw mungkan ting a bungli euro 10 billion jan (US$ 14.7 bilion) daram shaning shagu shang wa ai.



English : Jonny Reid, co-driver for the A1GP New Zealand team, today made history by driving the fastest over the 48-year-old Auckland Harbour Bridge, New Zealand, legally.

Jingpho : Jonny Reid ngu ai A1GP New Zealand uhpung a mawdaw gau garum ai wa gaw dai ni na aten hta New Zealand a tara shang asak 48 ning kaba ai Auckland Harbour mahkrai ntsa hku lawan dik ai hku gau lai nna labau ningnan galaw la lu sai re.



English : Mr Reid managed to drive the New Zealand´s A1GP car, Black Beauty at speeds over 160km/h seven times over the bridge.

Jingpho : Mr Reid gaw New Zealand na A1GP mawdaw achyang hpe mahkrai sanit lang lai nna 160km/h lawan n-gun hte gau na matu galaw wa ai.



English : The New Zealand police had trouble using their speed radar guns to see how fast Mr Reid was going because of how low Black Beauty is, and the only time the police managed to clock Mr Reid was when he slowed down to 160km/h.

Jingpho : New Zealand kaw na pyada ni gaw Black Beauty ram ram nem ai majaw shanhte a lawan ai radar sinat ni hpe lang ai hta Mr Reid gade ram sa mat ai hpe mu chye na matu manghkang nga ai, Mr Reid gaw 160km/h ram shanem ai ten she pyada ni gaw nari gade na ai mai masat ai.



[Day3]

English : In the last 3 months, over 80 arrestees were released from the Central Booking facility without being formally charged.

Jingpho : Lai wa sai shata 3 hta rim hkrum ai masha 80 jan ram gaw gumhpraw dam gayet ai nhkrum ai sha Central booking madi shadaw hpung kaw na shalawt ya ai lam hkrum lai wa sai re.



English : In April this year, a temporary restaining order was issued by Judge Glynn against the facility to enforce the release of those held more than 24 hours after their intake who did not receive a hearing by a court commissioner.

Jingpho : Ndai shaning shata man mali hta, Judge Glynn kaw na tara rung kaw na shana ai hpe nna ai sha galaw ai ni hpang aten 24 hta lai nna dai hpe chyahkring galaw na matu tara hpang wa ai.



English : The commissioner sets bail, if granted, and formalizes the charges filed by the arresting officer. The charges are then entered into the state´s computer system where the case is tracked.

Jingpho : Tara madung gaw gumhpraw chyhkrat ai, sadi jaw yang, ngut nna ayang gaw dai gumhpraw hpe pyada kaw na chyhkrat ai. Dai hpang dai gumhpraw gaw mangkang ni hpe jep ai state computer system de shang ai.



English : The hearing also marks the date for the suspect's right to a speedy trial.

Jingpho : Tara rung kaw madat la ai lam gaw ntsen ai wa a lawan ladan tara rung kaw jep yu na ahkaw ahkang hte seng nna masat mahtoi hpe ma matsing tawn da wa sai.



English : Peter Costello, Australian treasurer and the man most likely to succeed Prime Minister John Howard as Liberal party leader has thrown his support behind a nuclear power industry in Australia.

Jingpho : Australia mungdan a kunhting, Petru Costello hte Liberal pati ningbaw langai re ai, awng dang dik ai masha Hkringmang daju Yawhan Howard ni gaw Australia mungdan a nuclear laknak jak rung a shingdu de shi a madi shadaw lam nla ai zawn re na galaw dan wa sai.



English : Mr Costello said that when nuclear power generation becomes economically viable, Australia should pursue its use.

Jingpho : Mr Costello gaw nuclear laknak atsam shapraw ai lam hpe sut masa hte dang lu na mai byin ai nga yang gaw, Australia mungdan kaw na dai hpe lu lang na matu shakut ging ai ngu tsun ai.



English : ¨If it becomes commercial, we should have it. That is, there´s no in-principle objection to nuclear energy¨ Mr Costello said.

Jingpho : ¨Lama dai gaw hpaga bungli rai yang gaw, anhte galaw gin ai. Dai sha re, nuclear n-gun hta gaw hkrang tara madung ngu ai nnga ai,¨ ngu Slg. Kostello tsun wa ai.



English : According to Ansa, ¨police were concerned by a couple of top-level hits they feared might spark a full-blown war of succession.

Jingpho : Ansa tsun ai hku nga yang, ¨Pyada ni gaw arawng aya nga ai masha nkau mi kaw na majan hpe matut manoi baw sa wa mai ai lam hpe hkrit tsang ma ai.



English : Police said Lo Piccolo had the upper hand because he had been Provenzano´s right-hand man in Palermo and his greater experience won him the respect of the older generation of bosses as they pursued Provenzano´s policy of keeping as low as possible while strengthening their power network.

Jingpho : Pya da ni tsun ai gaw Lo Piccolo kaw ntsa lata nga ai hpamajaw nga yang shi kaw Palermo kaw Provenzano´s right-hand man nga ai ngut nna shi a mahkrum madup kaja gaw lawban dingla ni a hkung ka hpe lu ai re shanhte gaw shanhte bungli ni hpe ngun shaja ai hta provenzano´s policy hpe manu ahpa hte sha lu mari ai majaw re.



English : These bosses had been reined in by Provenzano when he put an end to the Riina-driven war against the state that claimed the lives of Mafia crusaders Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino in 1992.¨

Jingpho : 1992 ning hta Mafia a nhkru ai Falkone hte Paolo Borsellino ni a asak hkrat sum shangun ai Riina majan ngut mat ai hpang ndai sut du kaba ni hpe Provenzano gaw up hkang lai wa sai.¨



English : Apple CEO Steve Jobs unveiled the device by walking onto the stage and taking the iPhone out of his jeans pocket.

Jingpho : Apple CEO Steve Jobs gaw shi jeans labu sumbu kaw na iPhone hpe shaw nna masha shawng kaw lam hkawm let dai rai hpe madun dan ai.



English : During his 2 hour speech he stated that ¨Today Apple is going to reinvent the phone, We are going to make history today¨.

Jingpho : Shi mungga hkying hkum 2 ga shaga ai laman hta tsun ai gaw ¨Dai ni na ten Apple gaw phone hpe bai gin shapraw nga ai, anhte a labau hpe dai ni hpang taw sai.¨



English : Brazil is the largest Roman Catholic country on Earth, and the Roman Catholic Church has consistently opposed the legalization of same-sex marriage in the country.

Jingpho : Brazil gaw mungkan hta Roman Kahtawlik mungdan ni kaw na kaba htum mungdan re nna mungdan kata na nawku jawng ni gaw la shada da tara shang hkungran ai lam hpe myit nhkrum ma ai.



English : The National Congress of Brazil has debated legalization for 10 years, and such civil marriages are currently only legal in Rio Grande do Sul.

Jingpho : Brazil a Myu sha Rapdaw gaw tara shang byin hkra 10 ning daram ga ndang hkat wa ma ai, dai hpang mungchying hkungran ai lam langai gaw ya yang Rio Grande do Sul kaw sha tara shang shi ai.



English : The original bill was drafted by former mayor of São Paulo, Marta Suplicy. The proposed legislation, after being amended, is now in the hands of Roberto Jefferson.

Jingpho : Marta Suplicy a Mare uphkang du São Paulo gaw shawng na upadi nhprang hpe ka lajang da ai re. Yaw shada lam gaw masat ngut ai shaloi Roberto Jefferson a lata hta ahkang aya lu na re.



English : Protesters hope to collect a petition of 1.2 million signatures to present to the National Congress in November.

Jingpho : Masha N-gun madun ninghkap hpung ni gaw masha wan 1.2 laimak htu tawn ai shawk shawn laika ni hpe kahkyin la nna shata man shi langai kaw myu sha upadi ka rapdaw de tang shawn lu na matu myit mada nga ai.



English : After it became apparent that many families were seeking legal help to fight the evictions, a meeting was held on March 20 at the East Bay Community Law Center for the victims of the housing scam.

Jingpho : Chye ngut ai hpang dinghku nta masha grai law wa gau shapraw hkrum ai hpe ninghkap na matu tara shang karum ya na tam ai hpang, dum nta masu sha hkrum ai ni a matu Sinpraw Bay Mung shawa Upadi Zupra hta zuphpawng hpe shata man matsum 20 hta hpawng lai wa sai.



English : When the tenants started sharing what had occurred to them, most of the families involved suddenly realized that Carolyn Wilson of the OHA had stolen their security deposits, and skipped out of town.

Jingpho : Nta shap ai masha ni shanhte kaw hpa mi byin mat wa ai hpe hpaw tsun dan ai shaloi, dai hta lawm ai htinggaw law malawng gaw OHA a Carolyn Wilson gaw shanhte a tau jaw da ai jaram gumphraw ni hpe lagu la nna mare kaw na hprawng mat sai hpe kalang ta dum mat ma ai.



English : Tenants at Lockwood Gardens believe that there may be another 40 families or more to face eviction, since they learned that OHA police are also investigating other public housing properties in Oakland that may be caught up in the housing scam.

Jingpho : Lockwood nampan sun kaw shap nga ai masha ni gaw, OHA balit ni Oakland kaw na laga shawa nta hte seng ai arung arai ni hpe jep jen ai lam galaw nna shanhte ni mung nta masu ai lam a majaw mai rim hkrum ai lam hpe sharin la ngut ai kaw nna gaw nta kaw na gau shapraw hkum na nta 40 jan nna naw nga ai ngu nna kam ma ai.



English : The band canceled the show at Maui´s War Memorial Stadium, which was set to be attended by 9,000 people, and apologized to fans.

Jingpho : Dai uhpung gaw masha 9,000 lamang yu mai ai Maui a Majan Masat dingsat Ginsup pa hta shangwi shapyaw lamang hpe dawn jay na ai, dai hpang shanhte n-gun jaw shawa ni hpe bai hpyi nem wa ma ai.



English : The band´s management company, HK Management Inc., gave no initial reason when they canceled on September 20, but blamed logistical reasons by the next day.

Jingpho : Dum sumpyi hpung hpe lit la hparan ai hpaga hpung HK Hparan Hpareng Inc., gaw September shata 20 ya shani shaloi lamang dawm kau ai lam hpe sang lang dan ai lam nnga ai sha hpang shani hta e htaw wa htaw sa hparan ai lam hpe lawt ga madun nna mara shagun ma ai.



English : The famous Greek lawyers, Sakis Kechagioglou and George Nikolakopoulos have been imprisoned in the Athens´ jail of Korydallus, as they were found guilty of graft and corruption.

Jingpho : Greek a mying gumhkawng ai tara kasa ni re ai, Sakis Kechagioglou hte George Nikolakopoulos gaw mung masa akyang laban ai mara lu nna Korydallus a Athens hkyuk htawng hta rim da hkrum nu ai.



English : As a result of this, a big scandal within the Greek legal community has been raised through the exposure of illegal actions that judges, lawyers, solicitors and attorneys have done during the previous years.

Jingpho : Ndai mahtai hku na gaw, Greek tara lam hte seng ai uhpung kata shatan nhkan shiga ni gaw lai wa sai shaning laman hta tara agyi ni, tara kasa ni, tara rung tara kasa ni a tara nshang ai sat lawat ni dawng pru wa ai lam grai law wa ai.



English : A few weeks ago, after the information published by the journalist Makis Triantafylopoulos in his popular Television show ¨Zoungla¨ in Alpha TV, the member of Parliament and lawyer, Petros Mantouvalos was abdicated as members of his office had been involved in illegal graft and corruption.

Jingpho : Lai wa sai bat ni hta, Alpha TV kaw na mying kaba ai Zoungla lamang hta shiga laika sara Makis Triantafylopoulos gaw dai lam hpe shapraw dat ai hpang, Rapdaw salang hte tara kasa, Petros Mantouvalos hpe tara nshang bungli galaw ai hte kyang laban ai kaw lam ai ngu tsun ai hpe bai dawm la kau ma ai.



English : Moreover, top judge Evangelos Kalousis is imprisoned as he found guilty of corruption and degenerate behaviour.

Jingpho : Grau nna gaw, tara agyi daju Evangelos Kalousis gaw shi a nteng nman galaw ai lam hte mayun kumhpa sha ai lam hpe mara mu ai majaw htawng jahkrat kau ma ai.



[Day4]

English : Roberts flatly refused to say about when he believes life begins, an important question when considering the ethics of abortion, saying that it would be unethical to comment on the specifics of likely cases.

Jingpho : Roberts Flatley gaw ma shabrai ai lam hte seng ai arawn alai hpaji hte nsoi nsa gara kaw na hpang ai ngu ai lam ni hpe myit ningmu jaw na matu nhtap htuk ai nga nna, htai na matu ningdang kau ai.



English : He did, however, reiterate his earlier statement that Roe v. Wade was the ¨settled law of the land¨, emphasizing the importance of consistent Supreme Court rulings.

Jingpho : Shi hpa mi rai tim ndai laika hpe bai kahtap tsun ai hta Roe v. Wade gaw ¨Lamu ga a upadi jahkrat da ai¨ re, galai shai lam nnga ai Mungdan Tara rung ginjaw jahkrat masat da ai ahkyak ai lam hpe ahkyak galaw da ai.



English : He also confirmed that he believed in the implied right to privacy which the Roe decision depended upon.

Jingpho : Shi mung shagrin da ai dai gaw gawai lang ai kaw na Roe a daw dan da ai hta mahta da ai laksan hku nga ai lam hpe shi kam da ai.



English : Maroochydore had finished on top of the ladder, six points clear of Noosa in second.

Jingpho : Marochydore gaw dai lakang a lahta maga hpe shagut sai, Noosa a lahkawng lang hta hkru shara ngut sai.



English : The two sides would meet in the major semi final where Noosa ran out winners by 11 points.

Jingpho : Noosa 11 amat hte awng dan wa ai shara semi final kaw shan lahkawng hkrum na ra ai.



English : Maroochydore then defeated Caboolture in the Preliminary Final.

Jingpho : Maroochydore ngut ai hpang shaman ai lam hpang chyhtum hta Caboolture hte htawng na re.



English : Hesperonychus elizabethae is a species of the family Dromaeosauridae and is a cousin of Velociraptor .

Jingpho : Chyaloi nhkoi prat na dusat amyu langai rai nga ai Hesperonychus elizabethae gaw Dromaeosauridae amyu ni hte jinghku nta masha ni rai nna, Velociraptor amyu ni hte gaw hpu nau ni rai ma ai.



English : This fully feathered, warm blooded bird of prey was believed to have walked upright on two legs with claws like the Velociraptor.

Jingpho : Velociraptor zawn lamyin tu ai lagaw lahkawng hte lam chye hkawm ai dut sat gaw mun hpring hkra re matse labye u amyu hpan ngu kam ma ai.



English : Its second claw was larger, giving rise to the name Hesperonychus which means ¨western claw.¨

Jingpho : Shi a laga lamin gaw grai kaba ai, sinna lamin ngu lachyum rawng ai Hesperonychus hte galu gaba wa ai.



English : In addition to the crushing ice, extreme weather conditions have been hampering rescue efforts.

Jingpho : Hka ge ni ayai wa ai hta n ga lamu marang masa nhkrak ai a majaw sa hkye la ai ni a matu mung yak hkak nga ai.



English : Pittman suggested that conditions wouldn´t improve until sometime next week.

Jingpho : Pittman gaw dai mabyin masa gaw hpang na bat aten ladaw du hkra rawt jat ai lam n-nga na re ngu hpaji jaw lai wa sai re.



English : The amount and thickness of the pack ice, according to Pittman, is the worst it has been for sealers in the past 15 years.

Jingpho : Pittman hku na nga yang hka ge htuk a shadang, htat ai lam gaw sawng dik ai, ndai gaw lai wa sai shaning 15 ram dazik shakap sha ai sha re.



English : News spread in the Red Lake community today as funerals for Jeff Weise and three of the nine victims were held that another student was arrested in connection with the school shootings of March 21.

Jingpho : Dai ni gaw Jeff Weise hte tsin yam hkrum masha jahku kaw na masum a makoi mayang hpawng hte shata man matsum 21 ya shi jawng kata sinat gap ai lam hte seng nna kaga jawng ma ni rim hkrum ai lam a shiga ni gaw nawng hkyen makau grup yin kaw chyam bra nga ai re.



English : Authorities said little officially beyond confirming today´s arrest.

Jingpho : Daru magam lu ai hpung ni gaw dai ni rim ai lam hta jan ai lam ni hpe tara shang tsun lai wa sai re.



English : However, a source with knowledge of the investigation told the Minneapolis Star-Tribune that it was Louis Jourdain, 16-year old son of Red Lake Tribal Chairman Floyd Jourdain.

Jingpho : Hpa wa rai tim, jep sagawn ai a machye machyang npawt gaw Minneapolis Star-Tribune hpe ning tsun ai, dai wa gaw Red Lake Tribal Tingnyang up, Floyd Jourdain a 16 ning nga ai kasha Louis Jourdain re.



English : It is not known at this time what charges will be laid or what led authorities to the boy but juvenile proceedings have begun in federal court.

Jingpho : Ndai kalang gaw hpa tara hka wa mi jun na lam daru magam lu ai hpung ni hpe shabrang wa hpang de hpa baw wa mi e shadut dat re nchye lu nga ai rai timung asak kaji tara jun ai lam hpe ginjaw asuya hte seng ai tara rung kaw gaw galaw hpang nga sai re.



English : Lodin also said officials decided to cancel the runoff in order to save Afghans the expense and security risk of another election.

Jingpho : Lodin tsun ai gaw pya da ni gaw dai ningbaw lata ai hta gumhpraw ma na hte simlum ai lam hta nhkra hkra Afghans kaw galaw ai ni hpe matut ngalaw sai da.



English : Diplomats said that they had found enough ambiguity in the Afghan constitution to determine the runoff as unnecessary.

Jingpho : Sumtsan kasa ni gaw Afghan a gawda tara hpe ra mung nra ai hte maren, matut shagrin daw dan sa wa ai lam hta dan leng lam law law mung nnga ai hpe mu mada ma ai nga tsun ma ai.



English : This contradicts earlier reports, which said that cancelling the runoff would have been against the constitution.

Jingpho : Kahtap shingjawng na jahkring sai nga tsun da ai ndai htai lai ai lam ni hpe tau na tsun shapraw ai gaw mungdan gawda tara hte nhtan shai mai nga ai.



English : The aircraft had been headed to Irkutsk and was being operated by interior troops.

Jingpho : Dai nbungli hpe Irkutsk de yawng dat nna kata kaw na uhpung ni gaw hkau taw ai.



English : An inquiry was established to investigate.

Jingpho : San jep ai lam langai hpe jep san sagawn na matu shagrin da sai.



English : The Il-76 has been a major component of both the Russian and Soviet military since the 1970s, and had already seen a serious accident in Russia last month.

Jingpho : II-76 gaw shaning 1970 hkan na Russian hte Soviet hpyen dap lahkawng yan a madung dawshan langai re nna lai wa sai shata mi hta Russia kaw manu mana hkala nba kalang mi byin hkrum ga sai re.



English : On October 7 an engine separated on takeoff, without injuries. Russia briefly grounded Il-76s after that accident.

Jingpho : October shata 7 ya shani hta pyenli pyen lung ai shaloi jak kaga ga byin mat ai raitim, ningma kap ai lam gaw n nga ai. Russia masha ni hku nna ndai shoihpa byin ngut ai hte II-76s nbungli lang ai lam hpe jahkring mi hkring da ma ai.



English : 800 miles of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System were closed down following a spill of thousands of barrels of crude oil south of Fairbanks, Alaska.

Jingpho : Trans-Alaska hka lawng ladat a deng 800 ram hpe gaw Alaska a dingdung Fairbanks kaw na sau wahtawng hkying hku hkaw mat ai majaw pat hkum da hkrum ai re.



English : A power failure following a routine fire-command system test caused relief valves to open and crude oil overflowed near the Fort Greely pump station 9.

Jingpho : Lam manga system jep ai hta wan ngun hkrak nna matsut ai hpaw mat ai ngut nna makaw na Fort Greely seng 9 hta tsau ni yawng pru wa ai.



[Day5]

English : The valves opening allowed a pressure release for the system and oil flowed on a pad to a tank that can hold 55,000 barrels (2.3 million gallons).

Jingpho : Dai matsut gaw system hpe dip da hpe galaw ya ai re, ngut nna dik 55,000 (2.3 million gallon) daram mai hpring ai tsau ni hpru wa ai.



English : As of Wednesday afternoon, the tank vents were still leaking probably from thermal expansion inside the tank.

Jingpho : Dam shani ka´ang kaw, tank vent kaw na matut lwi taw ai gaw tank kata kaw na kahtet dat law mat ai majaw re sam ai.



English : Another secondary containment area below the tanks capable of holding 104,500 barrels was not yet filled to capacity.

Jingpho : Kaga lahkawng ngu na sharawng bang ai lam gaw lawu na wahtawng 104,500 shang ai tank ni gaw naw nhpring shi ma ai.



English : The comments, live on television, were the first time that senior Iranian sources have admitted that the sanctions are having any effect.

Jingpho : TV ntsa live madun ai hta myit ningmu (sh) dinglun ai lam ni kaw na ding tawng shapoi ai ni gaw Iran amyu hte seng ai dai pawt dai hpang ni hku nna galaw ahkang pat shingdang da ai lam ni gaw akyu lama ma nga taw ai ngu nna shawng nnan tsun pru wa ai re.



English : They include financial restrictions and a ban by the European Union on the export of crude oil, from which the Iranian economy receives 80% of its foreign income.

Jingpho : Iranian ni a maigan gumhpraw 80% shang ai kaw na maigan sa sau hpaga ga ai lam hpe Uropa Uhpung gaw ahkang njaw ai hte ja gumhpraw pat shingdang ai lam ni shalawm ma ai.



English : In its most recent monthly report, OPEC said exports of crude had fallen to their lowest level for two decades at 2.8 million barrels per day.

Jingpho : Ndai laman a shata shagu na shiga hta, nhprang shapraw gunrai magam ni gaw, lani mi hta 2.8 wan wahtawng daram hkrat mat sai lam hpe OPEC ni tsun ai.



English : The country´s supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, has described the dependency on oil as ¨a trap¨ dating from before Iran´s Islamic revolution in 1979 and from which the country should free itself.

Jingpho : Mungdan a tsaw htum ai ningbaw kaba, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei gaw wan sau a ntsa shamyet shanat ai lam gaw ¨mahkam¨ re nga ai lam hpe, 1979 Iran mungdan Islam makam masham hte seng ai rawt malan ai lam a shawng aten kaw na htawng madun lai wa sai re nna mungdan ting nan mung dai mahkam kaw na lawt lu ra ai lam hpe mung htawng madun dan lai wa sai re.



English : When the capsule gets to Earth and enters the atmosphere, at about 5am (eastern time), it is expected to put on quite a light show for folks in Northern California, Oregon, Nevada, and Utah.

Jingpho : Tum makawp gaw mungkan ntsa du wa nna nbung kata de shang ai shaloi, jawhpawt hkying 5 (sinpraw ahkying) ram hta, Dingdung California, Oregon, Nevada, hte Utah ni a masha uhpung ni a matu gaw nhtoi kaji mi htoi taw na hpe myit mada ai.



English : The capsule will look much like a shooting star going across the sky.

Jingpho : Tsi tawng gaw lamu kaw shagan gat lai mat ai zawn re.



English : The capsule will be traveling at about 12.8 km or 8 miles per second, fast enough to go from San Francisco to Los Angeles in one minute.

Jingpho : Dai tsi tawng gaw second mi hta 12.8 km deng 8 daram mai du na ra ai, minit mi hta San Francisco kaw na Los Angeles de atsawm lawan mai du ai.



English : Stardust will set a new all-time record for being the fastest spacecraft to return to Earth, breaking the previous record set in May of 1969 during the return of the Apollo X command module.

Jingpho : Stardust gaw lamu lung pyenli langai hku na mungkan ga de bai wa ai hta labau shang lawan dik ai jak ngu labau hta ka matisng lu sai, shawng kalang gaw 1969 May shata hta Apollo X bai nhtang wa ai ten dai hpe lai di nna labau shang da ai re.



English : "It will move over the west coast of northern California and will light the sky from California through central Oregon and on through Nevada and Idaho and into Utah," Tom Duxbury, Stardust´s project manager said.

Jingpho : ¨Dai gaw dingda Kalifornia a sinna panglai de htawt mat na re ngut nna lamu kaw na jan gaw Kalifornia kaw na ka-ang Oregon du hkra ngut na Nevada hte Idaho, dai hpang Utah du hkra htoi tu na re,¨ ngu masing reng hkang salang, Tom Duxbury tsun ai.



English : Mr. Rudd´s decision to sign the Kyoto climate accord isolates the United States, which will now be the only developed nation not to ratify the agreement.

Jingpho : Kyoto lamu marang shiga myit hkrum lam hta Mr. Rudd na lata masat htu na matu daw dan ai lam gaw United States hpe garan tawn da nga ai rai nna, ndai gaw dai ni na myit hkrum lam hpe shagrin na matu myit nhkrum ai rawt jat taw sai mungdan langai sha re sana re.



English : Australia´s former conservative government refused to ratify Kyoto, saying it would damage the economy with its heavy reliance on coal exports, while countries like India and China were not bound by emissions targets.

Jingpho : Moi na Australia mungdan aup ni gaw Koyto hpe ahkang jaw na matu ndang ma ai, shanhte gaw nlung chyang sa ai bungli hpe chyhten na ni re ngu tsun ai, dai shaloi India ngut nna China zawn mungdan ni ngalaw shi yang re.



English : It is the biggest acquisition in eBay´s history.

Jingpho : Ndai gaw eBay a ahtik labau hta kaba htum ai tam mahkyu la lu ai sutgan re nga ai.



English : The company hopes to diversify its profit sources and gain popularity in areas where Skype holds a strong position, such as China, Eastern Europe, and Brazil.

Jingpho : Dai company gaw shanhte amyet ni garan nmatu myit ai ngut nna China, sinpraw Europe, hte Brazil zawn Skype ni grai galu kaba wa ai shara kaw masha grai law wa ai re.



English : Scientists have suspected Enceladus as geologically active and a possible source of Saturn´s icy E ring.

Jingpho : Hpungtang hpaji ninghkring ni gaw Saturn a hkyen E tingwang a mai byin ai npawt langai hte Enceladus hpe ginding aga langai hku na jep maram da ma ai.



English : Enceladus is the most reflective object in the solar system, reflecting about 90 percent of the sunlight that hits it.

Jingpho : Enceladus gaw solar system hta grai ahkyak ai lam re, jan hkra ai sha hta 90 percent daram bai nhtang ai re.



English : The game publisher Konami stated today in a Japanese newspaper that they will not be releasing the game Six Days in Fallujah.

Jingpho : Daini na Japan shi laika kaw Konami ngu ai ginsup hpan shabra ai wa tsun shapraw lai wa ai gaw, shanhte ni Fallujah kaw kru ya ginsup hpan nshapraw wa na re.



English : The game is based on the Second Battle of Fallujah, a vicious battle between American and Iraqi forces.

Jingpho : Ndai ginsup hpa gaw ¨Fallujah a Nambat Lahkang Majan¨ ngu ai Amerikan amyu hte Iraqi amyu ni a laja lana re ai majan poi hpe yu na npawt la da ai re.



English : The ACMA also found that despite the video being streamed on the Internet, Big Brother had not breached online content censorship laws as the media had not been stored on Big Brother´s website.

Jingpho : Matut na ACMA gaw ndai video sumla kumpyuta tsip (internet) ntsa kaw mara katut ai hta lai na ¨Big Brother¨ a internet laika man ginsu ntsa hta shawa matut mahkai rai nnga shi ai majaw, ¨Big Brother¨ gaw kaga jep jen ai tara hpe nhkan nang ai lam ni nnga ai hpe mu ma ai.



English : The Broadcasting Services Act provides for the regulation of Internet content, however to be considered Internet content, it must physically reside on a server.

Jingpho : Broadcasting Service Tara upadi gaw Internet lawnglam ni a matu rip kawp tara shapraw da ai, rai timung internet lawnglam ni hpe hkan yu yang dai hpe server kaw nan shakap tawn ra ai.



English : The United States embassy located in Nairobi, Kenya has issued a warning that ¨extremists from Somalia¨ are planning to launch suicide bomb attacks in Kenya and Ethiopia.

Jingpho : United States sumtsan salang rung gaw Kenya, Nairobi hta shara shahkrat da ai re nna, Kenya hte Ethiopia kaw sat si bawm kabaw na mahkyen hkyen nga ma ai nga ¨Somalia na sa dik ai ni¨ ngu ai sadi jaw ai lam hpe tsun shapraw da sai.



English : The U.S. says it has received information from an undisclosed source that specifically mentions the use of suicide bombers to will blow up ¨prominent landmarks¨ in Ethiopia and Kenya.

Jingpho : Madu hkum sat si bawm jahkrat ai ni hpe jai lang nna Ethiopia hte Kenya kaw nga ai ¨gumhkawng hkik hkam ai lamu ga shara ni¨ hpe kapaw na lam hpe mying nchye lu ai shiga npawt langai kaw na shiga na la lu ai lam US hku nna ndau shana ai.



English : Long before The Daily Show and The Colbert Report, Heck and Johnson envisioned a publication that would parody the news—and news reporting—when they were students at UW in 1988.

Jingpho : Shani shagu madun dan ai lam hte Colbert ai sumtang laika ni a shawng e gaw, Heck hte Johnson gaw shan lahkawng 1988 hta UW kaw jawng ma naw re ai nga aten kaw na shiga ni hte shiga sumtang laika ni hpe shatu shakra ai laika dip shapraw na lam ni hpe shingran mu lai wa sai re.



[Day6]

English : Since its inception, The Onion has become a veritable news parody empire, with a print edition, a website that drew 5,000,000 unique visitors in the month of October, personal ads, a 24 hour news network, podcasts, and a recently launched world atlas called Our Dumb World.

Jingpho : Nnan hpang wa ai kaw na, Onion ni gaw chyhpyak shiga dap zawn byin wa ai, shanhte gaw shapraw ai laika, shata man shi kaw masha 5,000,000 daram dai website sa yu ma ai, personal ads, hking 24 shiga shapraw ai, podcast, ngut nna Our Dumb World ngu mying nga ai hpe lu shapraw wa lu ai.



English : Al Gore and General Tommy Franks casually rattle off their favorite headlines (Gore´s was when The Onion reported he and Tipper were having the best sex of their lives after his 2000 Electoral College defeat).

Jingpho : Al Gore hte General Tommy Frank gaw shanhte ra ai ni hpe yen kau ai (Gore gaw The Onion tsun ai shi hte Tipper shaning 2000 Electoral College ndang ai hpang grai ganawm tsum wa ai ngut tsun ai).



English : Many of their writers have gone on to wield great influence on Jon Stewart and Stephen Colbert´s news parody shows.

Jingpho : Laga laika ka sharin ai ni grai law wa gaw, Jon Stewart hte Stephen Colbert yan a shiga madun lamang hta shingkang ka-up ai lam galaw mat ma ai.



English : The artistic event is also part of a campaign by the Bucharest City Hall that seeks to relaunch the image of the Romanian capital as a creative and colourful metropolis.

Jingpho : Yungwi lamang hpe Bucharest Muklum Gawknu hta campaign langai hku jai lang nna nsam hkum ai hte grai kaja ai mare kaba langai hku na Romanian muklum a shingna hpe bai shapraw ya na lam tam ai.



English : The city will be the first in southeastern Europe to host CowParade, the world´s largest public art event, between June and August this year.

Jingpho : Ndai ning shata man kru kaw na matsat lapran galaw na mungkan na kaba dik CowParade lamang hpe galaw ai singpraw dingdung Europe kaw na shawng nnan myu re.



English : Today´s announcement also extended the government´s commitment made in March of this year to fund extra carriages.

Jingpho : Dai ni na asuya a ndai shaning march shata hta jahpan grau jahkrat na matu lagaw sa wa na ngu tsun ai lam hpe mung ndau shana lai wa sai re.



English : An additional 300 brings the total to 1,300 carriages to be acquired to relieve overcrowding.

Jingpho : Dai hta nna masha htaw ai 1,300 kaw na 300 hpe bai lu la wa sai re.



English : Christopher Garcia, a spokesperson of the Los Angeles Police Department, said the suspected male offender is being investigated for trespassing rather than vandalism.

Jingpho : Los Angeles pya da dap a ningbaw, Christopher Garcia, tsun ai gaw mara galaw ai ngu shadu ai la hpe dingsa ai hta mara kaba galaw ai a matu jep taw ai re.



English : The sign was not physically damaged; the modification was done using black tarpaulins decorated with signs of peace and heart to alter the ¨O¨ to read lowercase ¨e¨.

Jingpho : Masat kumla gaw mala la gaw nhten shi ai; marang magap sumpan achyang ni hte simla lam hte salum masat kumla ni hpe mawn shatsawm nna ¨O¨ na malai gasi kaji ¨e¨ ngu sharai hti na matu gram jahtuk da sai.



English : Red tide is caused by a higher than normal concentration of Karenia brevis, a naturally-occurring single-celled marine organism.

Jingpho : Ahkyeng nsam hte hka hpung la ni gaw Karenia brevis ni hta lai jan nna myit mang dai ai majaw byin wa ai re. kaja wa panglai hte seng ai oganism cell langai kaw sha byin ai re.



English : Natural factors can intersect to produce ideal conditions, allowing this algae to increase in number dramatically.

Jingpho : Shingra maka hte seng ai bying ningpawt ni gaw ra nrawng hkra kup tsup ai masa ni hpe shapraw lu hkra shada da langai hte langai dingchyai ai lam galaw lu ai. Ndai hka kara ni hpe ma dan dan leng leng law htam wa shangun ai.



English : The algae produces a neurotoxin that can disable nerves in both humans and fish.

Jingpho : Hka kara ni gaw shinggyim masha hte nga ni a maju lasa nkung hkra lu galaw ai maju lasa hpe jahten chye ai gung ni shapraw lu ai.



English : Fish often die because of the high concentrations of the toxin in the waters.

Jingpho : Nga ni gaw hka kaw na toxin ni hpe grai sha hkrup ai majaw chyhkring hkring tsi mat ai.



English : Humans can be affected by breathing affected water taken into the air by wind and waves.

Jingpho : Hkaleng ngut nna nbung a majaw nbung kada de la ai hka gaw ntsa ai hte seng ai majaw masha hpe chye hkra ai re.



English : At its peak, Tropical Cyclone Gonu, named for a bag of palm leaves in the language of the Maldives, reached sustained winds of 240 kilometers an hour (149 miles per hour) .

Jingpho : Dai lahta kaw, Cyclone nbung laru, Maldives ga kaw maun lap hte galaw da ai nhpye ngu ai, aten langai kaw 240 kilometers (149 miles per hour) daram nbung bung ai re.



English : By early today, winds were around 83 km/h, and it was expect to keep weakening.

Jingpho : Dai hpawt maga hta, nbung ni gaw 83km/h daram rai nga nna dai nbung ni bai ngya wa na ngu myit mada lai wa sai.



English : On Wednesday, the United States´ National Basketball Association (NBA) suspended its professional basketball season due to concerns regarding COVID-19.

Jingpho : Dam shani hta, United States a Myu sha Ta din uhpung (NBA) gaw COVID-19 tsang ra ai majaw ta din ginsup num daw hpe jahkring kau ai.



English : The NBA´s decision followed a Utah Jazz player testing positive for the COVID-19 virus.

Jingpho : Utah Jazz yung ngoi ning hkring na COVID-19 virus nga ai hpe NBA dawdan ai gaw hkan sa ai.



English : ¨Based on this fossil, that means the split is much earlier than has been anticipated by the molecular evidence.

Jingpho : Ndai namhkan lung hta mahta nna, dai ga garan mat ai gaw molecular ni a sakse ni nlawm ai tim jau tak da ai hta grau loi ai hpe ngu mayu ai re.



English : That means everything has to be put back,¨ said researcher at the Rift Valley Research Service in Ethiopia and a co-author of the study, Berhane Asfaw.

Jingpho : ¨Dai lachyum gaw yawng hkra hte hpe bai tawn da ra na,¨ ngu Ethiopia na Rift Valley Sawk lak Karum hpung kaw na sawk sagawn ai wa hte Berhane Asfaw, hka ja dap na rau-laika ka sara langai tsun ai.



English : Until now, AOL has been able to move and develop the IM market at its own pace, due to its widespread use within the United States.

Jingpho : Ya du hkra, AOL gaw United States kata grai chyam bra hkra jai lang nga ai majaw de shara hta nan gaw IM gat lawk bungli naw galaw taw ai.



English : With this arrangement in place, this freedom might end.

Jingpho : Ginra gaw ndai zawn hkyen lajang ai a marang e ndai madu ra galaw lu ai ahkang gaw htum mat na re.



English : The number of users of the Yahoo! and Microsoft services combined will rival the number of AOL´s customers.

Jingpho : Yahoo! hte Microsoft hpe jai lang ai masha shadang pawng dat yang gaw AOL jai lang ai masha shadang hpe shing jawng mai wa na re.



English : The Northern Rock bank had been nationalised in 2008 following the revelation that the company had received emergency support from the UK Government.

Jingpho : The Northern Rock gumhpraw dum hpe 2008 hta UK asuya a ra ahkyak madi shadaw ya ai majaw mungdan gumhpraw dum tai wa sai lam hpaw tsun wa ai.



English : Northern Rock had required support due to its exposure during the subprime mortgage crisis in 2007.

Jingpho : 2007 ning na hka hte hkoi shap sha ra ai ginchyum chyat ladaw hta dai hku byin pru ai majaw Dingda Rock gaw karum kahtau ra mat ai.



[Day7]

English : Sir Richard Branson´s Virgin Group had a bid for the bank rejected prior to the bank's nationalisation.

Jingpho : Slg. Richard Branson na Virgin Hpung gaw mungdan masat gumhpraw dum hpe madung galaw ai hta ninghkap hkrum ai lam loi mi nga ai.



English : In 2010, while nationalised, the current high street bank Northern Rock plc was split from the 'bad bank', Northern Rock (Asset Management).

Jingpho : 2010 ning hta, mung ting mung shawa rai shatai la ai ten hta, ¨Northern Rock¨ laksan gumhpraw dum hpe ¨Nkaja ai gumhpraw dum¨ jahpan kaw na garan kau ai. Northern Rock (Manu dan Hparan lam).



English : Virgin have only purchased the 'good bank' of Northern Rock, not the asset management company.

Jingpho : Virgin gaw Dingdung Lung rawk a ¨kaja ai gumhpraw dum¨ hpe sha mari da ai, company a reng hkang lam gaw n madu ai.



English : This is believed to be the fifth time in history that people have observed what turned out to be chemically confirmed martian material falling to Earth.

Jingpho : Masha ni lamu kaw na martian arung arai mungkan de hkrat wa yang chemical hku hpa byin wa na hpe sagawn ai dai lam gaw labau hta manga lang rai na re ngu shadu lai wa sai.



English : Out of the approximately 24,000 known meteorites to have fallen to Earth, only about 34 have been verified to be martian in origin.

Jingpho : Sawn tak ai ram nga yang wanhkut lung ngu chye da ai 24,000 a ngam ai hte gaw mungkan ga de hkrat wa na re, dai kaw na 34 hpe gaw martian hku na madung shateng da ai.



English : Fifteen of these rocks are attributed to the meteorite shower last July.

Jingpho : Ndai lung rawk shi manga hpe July hpang jahtum hta shagan wanhkut lung madun ai ngu sawn la ma ai.



English : Some of the rocks, which are very rare on Earth, are being sold from US$11,000 to $22,500 per ounce, which is about ten times more than the cost of gold.

Jingpho : Mungkan ga ntsa grai taw ai nkau nlung ni hpe gaw ja a hkrat ang ai manu hta htam shi re nga ai, aung za mi hta US gumhpraw $ 11,000 kaw na $22,500 du hkra hte dut mari taw ai re.



English : Following the race, Keselowski remains the Drivers´ Championship leader with 2,250 points.

Jingpho : Matut nna mawdaw gau shingjawng poi hta, Keselowski gaw 2,250 masat hte mawdaw gawt masha ni a ninghkrin shingjawng poi ningbaw hku na matut nga nga ai re.



English : Seven points behind, Johnson is second with 2,243.

Jingpho : Amat sanit hpang hkrat nna, Johnson gaw 2,243 hte nambat lahkawng lu mat ai.



English : In third, Hamlin is twenty points behind, but five ahead of Bowyer. Kahne and Truex, Jr. are fifth and sixth respectively with 2,220 and 2,207 points.

Jingpho : Nambat masum hta gaw, Hamlin gaw a mat hkun hpang hkrat taw ai, raitim Bowyer hta a mat manga jan ai. Kahne and Truex, Jr. ni gaw manga hte kru shara kaw 2,220 hte 2,207 amat ni lu da ma ai.



English : Stewart, Gordon, Kenseth, and Harvick round out the top-ten positions for the Drivers´ Championship with four races remaining in the season.

Jingpho : Stewart, Gordon, Kenseth hte Harvick ni gaw ndai numdaw hta mali lang shingjawng na naw ngam ai hte rau Mawdaw la ni a Ninghkring shingjawng lamang matu nambat shi lapran shara la da masai.



English : The US Navy also said they were investigating the incident.

Jingpho : US hka hpyen dap kaw na tsun ai gaw shanhte mung dai mabyin hpe san jep sagawn nga ai re.



English : They also said in a statement, ¨The crew is currently working to determine the best method of safely extracting the ship¨.

Jingpho : Ndau shabra ai kaw shanhte tsun ai gaw, ¨bungli galaw masha ni gaw sanghpaw hpe kaja htum ai ladat hte lu gang shapraw la ai lam lu galaw na matu ya hkyak hkyak galaw taw nga ma ai.¨



English : An Avenger class mine countermeasures ship, the ship was on its way to Puerto Princesa in Palawan.

Jingpho : Avenger class mine countermeasures ngu ai sanghpaw shi mali gaw Palawan na Puerto Princesa de yawng wa sai re.



English : It is assigned to the U.S. Navy's Seventh Fleet and based in Sasebo, Nagasaki in Japan.

Jingpho : Dai hpe U.S.Hka hpyen Dap a sanit lang na Fleet hpe Japan mungdan kaw na Nagasaki a Sasebo hta dap jung na masat sai.



English : The Mumbai attackers arrived via boat on Novemeber 26, 2008, bringing with them grenades, automatic weapons and hit multiple targets including the crowded Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus railway station and the famous Taj Mahal Hotel.

Jingpho : Mumbai kasat ai ni gaw hkali hte 2008 November 26 ya hta du wa ai, shanhte gaw bawm, laknak ni law wa nna mying kaba ai Taj Mahal manam jarawp hte masha kabrawng ai Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus wanleng daru hta yaw shada lam nga nna kasat wa ma ai.



English : David Headley´s scouting and information gathering had helped to enable the operation by the 10 gunmen from the Pakistani militant group Laskhar-e-Taiba.

Jingpho : David Headley a shiga lahkawn da ai lam gaw Pakistani hpyen hpung re ai Laskhar-e-Taiba kaw na sinat hpai masha 10 hpe majan awngdang na matu lu karum da ai.



English : The attack put a huge strain on relations between India and Pakistan.

Jingpho : Gasat hkat ai lam gaw India hte Pakistan a matut mahkai lapran kaw ja dingkang ai lam ni bang ya nga ai.



English : Accompanied by those officials, he assured Texas citizens that steps were being taken to protect the public´s safety.

Jingpho : Shi gaw ndai arawng aya lu ai du ni hte rau , Texas mungdaw masha ni a machyi shim lam a matu atsawm lajang nga ai ngu ga sadi jaw sai.



English : Perry specifically said, ¨There are few places in the world better equipped to meet the challenge that is posed in this case.¨

Jingpho : Perry tsun ai gaw, ¨Ndai mabyin kaw na pru wa ai mayak ni hpe tawt lai na matu grau kaja ai shara ni mungkan ntsa hta nga ai¨.



English : The governor also stated, ¨Today, we learned that some school aged children have been identified as having had contact with the patient.¨

Jingpho : Matut nna, ginwang du wa gaw ¨dai ni gaw jawng lung nga ai ma ni hku nna ndai machyi masha hte hkrum hkra ai lam nga ma ai hpe chye lu ai¨ ngu tsun ai.



English : He went on to say, ¨This case is serious. Rest assured that our system is working as well as it should.¨

Jingpho : Shi gaw, ¨Ndai mabyin gaw kaja re. Ngam ai hte gaw byin ging ai hte maren anhte lai ladat gaw bungli byin taw ai re,¨ ngu sa tsun ai.



English : If confirmed, the find completes Allen´s eight-year search for the Musashi.

Jingpho : Lama na shagrin ya ai rai yang, Allen a Mushashi hpe matsat ning tam ai lam gaw ngut kye lu na re.



English : Following seabed mapping the wreck was found using an ROV.

Jingpho : ROV hpe lang nna panglai htumpa lamu ga hpe hkan nna lup mat ai sanghpaw hpe mu tam la ai re.



English : One of the world´s richest people, Allen has reportedly invested much of his wealth in marine exploration and began his quest to find the Musashi out of a lifelong interest in the war.

Jingpho : Mungkan a sutsu dik htum ai masha ni kaw na langai rai nga ai Allen gaw shi a sutgan ni hpe panglai hte seng ai tam sagawn amu hta arang bang da nna, Musashi sanghpaw a majan pa na prat hpe tam sawk yu ai lam hpe hpang wa nu ai.



[Day8]

English : She gained critical acclaim during her time in Atlanta and was recognized for innovative urban education.

Jingpho : Shi gaw Atlanta aten hta grau shagrau ga ni lu wa sai ngut nna nam laika hpaji hpe galaw wa ai ngu chye ma ai.



English : In 2009 she was awarded the title of National Superintendent of the Year.

Jingpho : Shaning 2009 kaw shi gaw Laning myi na Amyu sha hte seng hpareng ai wa ngu ai arawng ningsang hpe hkam la lu lai wa sai re.



English : At the time of the award, Atlanta schools had seen a large improvement on test scores.

Jingpho : Shagrau kumhpa lu la ai ten hta, Atlanta kaw nga ai jawng ni gaw sanpoi lu amat ni grau kaja wa ai hpe mu lu ai.



English : Shortly after, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution published a report showing problems with test results.

Jingpho : Jahkring mi na ai hpang, Atlanta shiga laika npawt nhpang upadi gaw jep tawn ai mahtai hte seng ai manghkang ni hpe madun ai sumtang laika hpe ndau shabra lai wa sai.



English : The report showed test scores had increased implausibly fast, and alleged the school internally detected problems but didn´t act on the findings.

Jingpho : Dai sumtang laika hpe yu yang sanpoi lu amat ni gaw n byin mai na daram alawan tsaw mat ai hpe mu lu ai. Dai majaw jawng ndai gaw manghkang ni nga ai hpe chye tim mahtai atsawm n tam ai ngu shadu ma ai.



English : Evidence thereafter indicated test papers were tampered with Hall, along with 34 other education officials, was indicted in 2013.

Jingpho : Mahtai madun ai laika hpe madu ngut ai hpang mu ai ni yawng gaw pawt ma ai, ngut nna 34 hpaji rawng ni hpe shaning 2013 hta madun wa ai.



English : The Irish government is stressing the urgency of parliamentary legislation to rectify the situation.

Jingpho : Irish asuya ni gaw dai mabyin masa ni hpe gram lajang na matu mungbawng rapdaw tara shang galaw ai lam ra ahkyak nga ai hpe myit li nga ma ai.



English : ¨It is now important from both a public health and criminal justice perspective that the legislation be enacted as soon as possible¨, said a government spokesperson.

Jingpho : ¨Ya gaw shawa hkamja lam hte tara tawt lai rap ra lam mu jut lahkawng maga na matu lawan byin mai ai made upadi ka jahkrat masat na gaw ahkyak ai,¨ ngu asuya a tsun shaga ahkang nga ai wa tsun wa sai.



English : The Health Minister expressed concern both for the welfare of individuals taking advantage of the temporary legality of the substances involved, and for drug-related convictions handed down since the now-unconstitutional changes came into effect.

Jingpho : Ya na gaw da tara galai shai ai lam nnga ai kaw na Hkamja dap a Hkringmang gaw nanghpam hte seng na hkam la da ai lam hpe hkan shadu na matu hte, nanghpam lusha ai ni hpe aten kadun tara shang ai hku shanhte dinghkrai a lu lawm lam karum kahtau lamang ngu ai lahkawn a matu myit tsang taw ai lam tsun shapraw da ai.



English : Jarque was practicing during pre-season training at Coverciano in Italy earlier in the day. He was staying in the team hotel ahead of a match planned for Sunday against Bolonia.

Jingpho : Jarque gaw shawng numdaw shaman na wunkat hpe Italy na Coverciano kaw shaman shakyang wa ai. Majoi shani hta Bolonia hte shingjawng na matu shanhte masha ni nga ai manam jarawp kaw nga nga ai.



English : He was staying in the team hotel ahead of a match planned for Sunday against Bolonia.

Jingpho : Shi gaw laban shana Bolonia hte shingjawng na lamang galaw na shara a shawng kaw na manam jarik kaw nga taw ai re.



English : The bus was headed to Six Flags St. Louis in Missouri for the band to play to a sold-out crowd.

Jingpho : Masha htaw mawdaw gaw yu ngwi ninghking ni lakmat mari da ai masha uhpung hpe shangwi shapyaw na matu Missouri kaw na dawng hkawn kru re ai St. Louis de sa wa sai re.



English : At 1:15 a.m. Saturday, according to witnesses, the bus was going through a green light when the car made a turn in front of it.

Jingpho : Majoi shani 1:15 a.m hta, sakse nga ai ni tsun ai hku nga yang, dai mawdaw gaw shawa jawn mawdaw kaba a shawng hku na gayin la ai ten, dai mawdaw kaba gaw wan tsit ai hku na lai mat wa ai.



English : As of the night of August 9, the eye of Morakot was about seventy kilometres away from the Chinese province of Fujian.

Jingpho : Shata ma matsat 9 ya a shana hta, Morakot jak a myi gaw Miwa a Fujian ginwang kaw kilometer sanit shi tsan ai share du lai wa ai re.



English : The typhoon is estimated to be moving toward China at eleven kph.

Jingpho : Bungga nbung laru kaba gaw Miwa maga de kph shi langai madang de sit sa wa na re ngu na tau sawn yu da ai re.



English : Passengers were given water as they waited in 90(F)-degree heat.

Jingpho : Bu hkawm masha ni gaw 90(F) kahtet ai degree kaw lat taw ai majaw shanhte hpe hka bu jaw ma ai.



English : Fire captain Scott Kouns said, ¨It was a hot day in the Santa Clara with temperatures in the 90s.

Jingpho : Wan sat ningbaw Scott Kouns tsun ai gaw, ¨90 ning ram hta na dai shani gaw Santa Clara hta gaw kahtet ai nhtoi langai re.



English : Any length of time trapped on a roller coaster would be uncomfortable, to say the least, and it took at least an hour to get the first person off the ride.¨

Jingpho : Roller coaster ntsa kaw jawn taw nga ai aten gaw kade mi wa re tim npyaw la nga na re, yawm htum tsun ga nga yang, shawng jawn ai wa yu na matu yawm htum aten hking hkum mi dang na ai re.¨



English : Schumacher who retired in 2006 after winning the Formula 1 championship seven times, was due to replace the injured Felipe Massa.

Jingpho : Schumacher gaw Formula 1 ninggang hpe sanit lang awng dang ai hpang shaning 2006 hta ningma lu mat ai Felipe Massa shara na majaw hkring sa mat wa sai.



English : The Brazilian suffered a serious head injury after a crash during the 2009 Hungarian Grand Prix.

Jingpho : 2009 na Hungarian Grand Prix laman adawt hkrum ai hpang Brazil masha ni gaw laja lana baw anhtu hkra ai hkrum sha ma ai.



English : Massa is due to be out for at least the rest of the 2009 season.

Jingpho : Massa gaw shau htum shaning 2009 a ngam a shata hkan gaw le wa na re.



English : Arias tested positive for a mild case of the virus, Presidential Minister Rodrigo Arias said.

Jingpho : Gumsan magam Hkring mang Rodrigo Arias tsun ai gaw, Arias gaw ana kanu nau nsawng ai baw positive byin mat ai.



English : The president´s condition is stable, though he will be isolated at home for several days.

Jingpho : Gumsan magam ai masa gaw azim sha naw re nga ai, shi hpe nta kaw tsan ai shara de nhtoi na na wa tawn da na rai tim.



English : ¨Apart from the fever and a sore throat, I feel well and in good shape to carry out my work by telecommuting.

Jingpho : Machyi ai hte du machyi ai hta lai nna, ngai nga pyaw ai re hta n-ga nta kaw na tsun shaga ai bungli hpe galaw na ma ai.



English : I expect to return to all my duties on Monday,¨ Arias said in a statement.

Jingpho : ¨Nye a magam lit ni yawng Majoi shani hta bai galaw lu na myit mada ai,¨ ngu Arias gaw shana laika kaw tsun da ai.



[Day9]

English : Felicia, once a Category 4 storm on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, weakened to a tropical depression before dissipating Tuesday.

Jingpho : Felicia ngu ai Saffir-Simpson Hurricane gaw nbung laru shadawn shachyang hta na amyu hpan 4 laru gaw Chyanun shani ndu shi yang n-gun yawm mat sai.



English : Its remnants produced showers across most of the islands, though as of yet, no damage or flooding has been reported.

Jingpho : De a angaw angam ni gaw zinlawng law malawng hta shang mat ai re tim, htenza ai lam hka lim ai lam hpe shiga kaw npru wa shi ai.



English : The precipitation, reaching 6.34 inches at a gauge on Oahu, was described as ¨beneficial¨.

Jingpho : Oahu a tsa tsaw shadang shadawn rai hta letma 6.34 lung wa ai lam kajawng kaja re ai hpe ¨akyu hkamsha lam¨ ngu htawng madun da ma ai.



English : Some of the rainfall was accompanied by thunderstorms and frequent lightning.

Jingpho : Marang htu ai lam nkau mi kaw gaw mu laru hte jahkring hkring gala ai myihprap ni kapyawn lawm nga ai.



English : The Twin Otter had been trying to land at Kokoda yesterday as Airlines PNG Flight CG4684, but had aborted once already.

Jingpho : Ndai ¨The Twin Otter¨ ngu ai nbungli gaw mani kaw na Airlines PNG Flight CG4684 hku nna Kokoda mare kaw yu na matu galaw ai raitim n awng dang mat ai.



English : About ten minutes before it was due to land from its second approach it disapeared.

Jingpho : Shi yu ra aten hta minit shi jau nna lahkawng lang ngu na yu wa na matu shakut nga ai shaloi mat mat ai re.



English : The crash site was located today and is so inaccessable that two policemen were dropped into the jungle in order to hike to the scene and seek survivors.

Jingpho : Nbungli hkrat ai shara hpe dai ni mu tam la sai. Dai shara gaw sa na matu tsan gang yak hkak ai majaw pyada lahkawng hpe dai de sa nna, asak naw hkrung ai masha ni hpe tam na hkye la na matu dat dat sai.



English : The search had been hampered by the same bad weather that had caused the aborted landing.

Jingpho : Lamu marang nkaja ai hte hpawn yu wa yak ai lam byin hkrum hkra ai majaw sawk tam ai lam hpe hkum shingdang kau ra ai.



English : According to reports, an apartment on Macbeth Street exploded due to a gas leak.

Jingpho : Shiga hku nga yang, Macbeth lam ntsa kaw na gawk nta langai myi gaw dat nsa gayun ai a majaw kapaw lai wa sai re.



English : An official with the gas company was reporting to the scene after a neighbor called about a gas leak.

Jingpho : Dat nsa hpaga hpung na arawng aya lu ai wa gaw makau grupyin na masha langai dat nsa mawng hkrat ai lam hpe tsun shana ai hpang ndai mabyin hpe sumtang madun wa ai.



English : When the official arrived, the apartment exploded.

Jingpho : Balik hpyen la ni du ai hpang, dum nta gaw kapaw wa ai re.



English : No major injuries were reported, but at least five people on scene at the time of the explosion were treated for symptoms of shock.

Jingpho : Machyi hkra ai lam kaba kaga ni hpe gaw nshana ma ai. Raitim, yawm htum dai kapaw ai aten hta dai shara kaw nga ai masha manga ni gaw kajawng ai ana kumla a majaw tsi tsi lajang hkrum ma ai.



English : No one was inside the apartment.

Jingpho : Wut wahpang gawk kata hta gadai mung n nga ai.



English : At the time, nearly 100 residents were evacuated from the area.

Jingpho : Dai aten hta, shanu nga ai masha 100 daram hpe dai shara kaw na shim ai shara de htawt sit kau lu sai.



English : Both golf and rugby are set to return to the Olympic Games.

Jingpho : Golf hte rugby ginsup ai lamang ni hpe Olympic ginsup ai kaw gai bang wa sai.



English : The International Olympic Committee voted to include the sports at its executive board meeting in Berlin today. Rugby, specifically rugby union, and golf were selected over five other sports to be considered to participate in the Olympics.

Jingpho : Daini Berlin kaw mungkan ga daga hte seng ai Olympic komti hpung gaw n-gun ginsup hpan ni hpe shi a amu gun masha jep hpung a zuphpawng hta shalawm la na matu ra lata me bang lai wa sai. Rapbi, grau nna gaw Rapbi munghpawm hte goft ni hpe laga n-gun ginsup hpan manga hta grau nna Olympic kaw lu lawm hkra myit ya na matu lata tawn da sai re.



English : Squash, karate and roller sports tried to get onto the Olympic program as well as baseball and softball, which were voted out of the Olympic Games in 2005.

Jingpho : 2005 manga hta Olympic ginsup hpan kaw nna shapru kau na matu ra lata me bang hkrum lai wa ai lagaw lata bawlung (baseball) ginsup hpan hte softball ginsup hpan ni hte dip kanawng ai baw, karate hte shakri hkat ai baw ginsup hpan ni gaw Olympic mahkyen kaw shang lu na matu shakut lai wa sai re.



English : The vote must still be ratified by the full IOC at it´s October meeting in Copenhagen.

Jingpho : Sindan pa ni hpe gaw Copenhagen kaw na shata man shi hkrum zup bawng ban hpawng hta IOC kawn hpring tup shagrin ai lam galaw na re.



English : Not all were supportive of the inclusion of the women's ranks.

Jingpho : Yawng gaw num ni a madang ni hpe shalawm nna madi shadaw da ai nre.



English : 2004 Olympic silver medallist Amir Khan said, ¨Deep down I think women shouldn't fight. That's my opinion.¨

Jingpho : Shaning 2004 Olampik hta gumhpraw shagrau dazik lu ai Amir Khan tsun lai wa ai gaw, ¨Ngai sung sung myit yu yang num ni nmai htawng hkat shingjawng nga ai. Dai gaw ngai na myit ningmu re.¨



English : Despite his comments he said he will be supporting the British competitors at the 2012 Olympics being held in London.

Jingpho : Shi laika hta kaw ka da timung, shi tsun ai gaw shi gaw London kaw hkyen sa wa na shaning 2012 a Olympics hta British hpe ninghkap shing jawng na ni hpe karum madi shadaw sa na ngu tsun ai.



English : The trial took place at Birmingham Crown Court and concluded on August 3.

Jingpho : Jep jen ai lam hpe Birmingham Jan mau tara rung kaw galaw lai wa nna August 3 kaw dawdan ai lam galaw lai wa sai re.



English : The presenter, who was arrested at the scene, denied the attack and claimed he used the pole to protect himself from bottles being thrown at him by up to thirty people.

Jingpho : Madun ginra hta rim hkrum lai wa ai lamang jum wa gaw dinglun ai hpe nyet kau ai re nna shi gaw masha sumshi daram shi kaw kabai dat ai soi ndum ni kaw na shi hkum shi makawp maga na matu shadaw ni hpe lang wa ai re ngu na aja wa tsun lai wa sai re.



English : Blake was also convicted of attempting to pervert the course of justice.

Jingpho : Blake hpe tara rung hjpe nhkru ai nkaja ai hku galaw ai majaw tara chyahkrat hkrum lai wa sai.



English : The judge told Blake it was ¨almost inevitable¨ he was going to be sent to jail.

Jingpho : Tara agyi gaw Blake hpe tsun ai, dai gaw ¨gara hku mung koi yen nmai ai¨ re she hpe hkyuk htawng de sa kau sa na.



[Day10]

English : Dark energy is a completely invisible force that is constantly acting upon the universe.

Jingpho : Chyang mang n-gun atsam gaw ninggawn tawa hta ding yang galaw taw ai nmu lu ai ganawng n-gun langai re.



English : Its existence is known only because of its effects on the expansion of the universe.

Jingpho : Mungkan ga a dam lada ai lam hpe yu nna shi a nga ai lam hpe chye lu ai.



English : Scientists have discovered landforms littered across the moon´s surface called lobate scarps that have apparently resulted from the moon´s shrinking very slowly.

Jingpho : Hpaji rawng ni gaw shata kaw na lobate hkraw ngu shaga ai ga shara gaw angoi sha kaji wa ai hpe mu tam la ma ai.



English : These scarps were found all over the moon and appear to be minimally weathered, indicating that the geologic events that created them were fairly recent.

Jingpho : Ndai dawchyen ni hpe gaw shata a makau hkan kaw mu la ai re nna lamu marang galai sha ai lam a majaw byin pru wa ai lam kaji htum ni kaw mu nga ai re nna ginding a-ga hte seng ai ndai laman sha galaw shapraw dat ai zawn re ai mabyin ni hpe madi madun taw ai re.



English : This theory contradicts the claim that the moon is completely devoid of geologic activity.

Jingpho : Dai matsun gaw shata gaw lamu ga zawn nre ngu tsun ai hpe ndang taw nga ai re.



English : The man allegedly drove a three-wheeled vehicle armed with explosives into a crowd.

Jingpho : La langai mi gaw,bawm kapaw na shajin tawn ai dingsen masum mawdaw hte masha hpawng de gawt shang wa ai.



English : The man suspected of detonating the bomb was detained, after sustaining injuries from the blast.

Jingpho : Bawm kapaw ai kaw na lu na ningma hpe tsi tsi lajang ngut ai hpang bawm kapaw ai hte seng nna shadu hkrum ai masha hpe rim da lai wa sai re.



English : His name is still unknown to authorities, although they do know he is a member of the Uighur ethnic group.

Jingpho : Ahkang nga ai ni shi mying hpe nchye shi ai re, raitim shi gaw Uighur myu re hpe shanhte chye ai.



English : Nadia, born on September 17, 2007, by Cesarean section at a maternity clinic in Aleisk, Russia, weighed in at a massive 17 pounds 1 ounce.

Jingpho : Nadia hpe gaw Russia mung dan, Aleisk mare kaw na ma kanu tsi gawk kaw, shata man chyhku 17 ya, shaning 2007 ya shani ga lajang hku shangai la ai re nna numnak pound 17 hte aung za langai myi nga lai ai re.



English : ¨We were all simply in shock,¨ the mother stated.

Jingpho : ¨Anhte yawng gaw dai hku sha kajawng mat ai,¨ ngu kanu gaw tsun ai.



English : When asked what the father said, she answered ¨He couldn´t say a thing - he just stood there blinking.¨

Jingpho : Kawa hpe tsun ai hpe san ai shaloi, shi tsun ai gaw, ¨Shi hpa mung nlu tsun ai - shi myi grip nna sha tsap nga ai.¨



English : ¨It´s going to behave like water. It´s transparent just the way water is.

Jingpho : Dai gaw hka zawn shamu shamawt na ra ai. Dai gaw hka a sa ai ladat zawn sha asan sha mu lu ai.



English : So if you were standing by the shoreline, you would be able to see down to whatever pebbles or gunk that was on the bottom.

Jingpho : Nang panglai makau kaw tsap taw yang, nang gaw npu kaw nga taw ai nlu dai nrai laga rai ni hpe mu lu na re.



English : As far as we know, there is only one planetary body that displays more dynamism than Titan, and its name is Earth,¨ added Stofan.

Jingpho : ¨Anhte chye ai daram gaw, Titan hta grau n-gun atsam nga ai masa hku madun lu ai shara gaw langai sha nga ai, dai gaw Mungkan ga re¨ nga Stofan kahtap tsun ai.



English : The issue started on January 1st when dozens of local residents started complaining to the Obanazawa Post Office that they hadn´t received their traditional and regular New Year cards.

Jingpho : Jau man nga ai ni shi lahkawng re ai uhpung ni Obanazawa Laika Shagun Rung hpe shanhte ni shanhte na htunghking hte seng ai hte ayan lu ai shaning ningnan kat pa nlu lai wa hte seng nna shawk shana ai lam hpang dat ai aten shata man langai 1 ya shani ndai manghkang gaw hpang lai wa sai re.



English : Yesterday, the post office released their apology to citizens and the media after discovering that the boy had hidden more than 600 postal documents, including 429 New Year postcards, which weren´t delivered to their intended recipients.

Jingpho : Laika sa dap ni kaw nna dai la kasha makoi da ai ga shaka laika 600 hta 429 gaw shaning ningnan sumla shagun laika rai nna yaw shada da ai hkap la ai ni de nlu sa sa ai hpe lu sagawn la ai majaw mani tawng ban laika hpe mungdan masha ni kaw shapraw dat ai.



English : The unmanned lunar orbiter Chandrayaan-1 ejected its Moon Impact Probe (MIP), which hurtled across the surface of the Moon at 1.5 kilometres per second (3000 miles per hour), and successfully crash landed near the Moon´s south pole.

Jingpho : Masha nmai galaw ai orbiter Chandrayaan-1 gaw shi a Moon Impact Probe (MIP) hpe ndang kau ai, dai gaw shata hta 1.5 kilometres per second (3000 mile per hour) hte sa dik hkrat wa ai ngut nna shata a dingdung pole makau kaw hkrat yu sai.



English : Besides carrying three important scientific instruments, the lunar probe also carried the image of the Indian national flag, painted on all sides.

Jingpho : Bai nna ahkyak ai hpungtang hpaji hte seng ai shadawn hkingrai masum jai lang yu yang, lunar sakse gaw maga shagu de na Kala myu sha dawng hkawn a sumla hta mung mu lu rawng ai.



English : ¨Thanks for those who supported a convict like me,¨ Siriporn was quoted as saying at a press conference.

Jingpho : Shiga sanglang hpawng langai kaw Siriporn hpe la kap nna tsun taw ai lam gaw, ¨ngai zawn re bawng masha hpe madi shadaw lai wa ai ni hpe chyeju dum ai lam re.¨



English : ¨Some may not agree but I don´t care.

Jingpho : Nkau mi gaw myit nhkrum na re raitim ngai ahkyak nda n-ngai.



English : I am happy that there are people willing to support me.

Jingpho : Ngai hpe madi shadaw mayu ai masha ni nga ai majaw ngai myit pyaw ai.



English : Since Pakistani independence from British rule in 1947, the Pakistani President has appointed ¨Political Agents¨ to govern FATA, who exercise near-complete autonomous control over the areas.

Jingpho : Shaning 1947 kaw British ni up hkang ai kata kaw na Pakistan ni shang lawt lu hpang kaw na gaw, Pakistan Gumsan magam gaw ¨Mung masa dat kasa ni hpe¨ ginra ni hpe madu hku na up hkang taw FATA hpe up hkang na matu shatsam dat ai.



English : These agents are responsible for providing government and judicial services under Article 247 of the Pakistani Constitution.

Jingpho : Ndai dat kasa ni gaw Pakistan mungdan gaw da tara a daw kaji 247 npu na asuya hte tara na matu lit nga ai.



English : A hostel collapsed in Mecca, the holy city of Islam at about 10 o´clock this morning local time.

Jingpho : Islam ni a chyoi pra ai mare kaba, Mecca na manam jarawp langai gaw buga ten jahpawt hkying 10 daram hta run hkrat mat ai.



English : The building housed a number of pilgrims who came to visit the holy city at the eve of hajj pilgrimage.

Jingpho : Dai nta htingtsip gaw hajj pilgrimage kaw na chyoi pra ai mare de nawku na matu du sa ai bu hkawm ai ni hpe nga shara jaw da ai.



[Day11]

English : The hostel´s guests were mostly citizens of the United Arab Emirates.

Jingpho : Ndai manam jarawp kaw na manam law malawng gaw United Arab Emirates mungdan kaw na masha ni re.



English : The death toll is at least 15, a figure which is expected to rise.

Jingpho : Si hkrung si htan hkrum ai gaw yawm dik 15 re, ruhkum ndai hta grai law na re ngu myit mada ai.



English : Leonov, also known as ¨cosmonaut No. 11¨, was part of the Soviet Union´s original team of cosmonauts.

Jingpho : Leonov, ¨cosmonaut No. 11¨ ngu chye da ai gaw Soviet Uhpung a cosmonaut a mi na hpung a daw chyen re.



English : On March 18, 1965, he performed the first manned extravehicular activity (EVA), or ¨spacewalk¨, remaining alone outside the spacecraft for just over twelve minutes.

Jingpho : 1965 ning na Wut shata 18 ya shani hta shi a shawng jahtum ¨EVA¨ lamang shing nrai, lamu hpungtang kaw langai hkrai hkawm sa ai lam hpe minit shi lahkawng jan hkra galaw lai wa sai.



English : He received the ¨Hero of the Soviet Union¨, the Soviet Union´s highest honor, for his work.

Jingpho : Shi gaw Soviet Union kaw na madan tsaw dik Hero of the Soviet Union hpe shi bungli a majaw lu wa ai.



English : Ten years later, he led the Soviet part of the Apollo–Soyuz mission symbolizing that the Space Race was over.

Jingpho : Shi ning na ai hpang, she gaw Apollo-Soyuz lit la lamang na Soviet daw hpe masat dingsat let Lamu ganghkau Gashun ai lam htum sai ngu woi awn mat ai.



English : She said, ¨There is no intelligence to suggest that an attack is expected imminently.

Jingpho : Shi tsun ai gaw, ¨Gasat gala lam gaw du wa na re ngu myit mada taw na hpe hpaji jaw na matu hpaji ngu gaw nnga ai.



English : However, the reduction of the threat level to severe does not mean the overall threat has gone away.¨

Jingpho : Kaning raitim, ndai jahkrit shama hkrum ai lam loi yawm mat ai gaw ndai lam nnga mat ai nre ai hpe chye ra nga ai.¨



English : While authorities are unsure of the credibility of the threat, the Maryland Transportaion Authority made the closure with the urging of the FBI.

Jingpho : Daru magam lu ai uhpung ni gaw jahkrit shama ai lam a shimlum lam hpe hkrat nchye lu shi ai shaloi, Maryland htaw wa htaw sa hte seng nna darum magam lu ai uhpung ni gaw FBI a madi shadaw n-gun hte ni htep sa wa lu hkra galaw lai wa sai.



English : Dump trucks were used to block tube entrances and assistance of 80 police were on hand to direct motorists to detours.

Jingpho : Mawdaw jahten ni hpe gaw shangna tingrat ni hpe pat na matu lang ai rai nna balik 80 daram gaw kaga lam hku sa lu na matu garum ya nga ai.



English : There were no heavy traffic delays reported on the beltway, the city´s alternate route.

Jingpho : Mare a kaga lam rai nga ai Beltway maga de gaw mawdaw htinglet na matu aten na ai lam n nga ai hpe chye lu ai.



English : Nigeria previously announced it planned to join the AfCFTA in the week leading up to the summit.

Jingpho : Nigeria mungdan gaw du na bat hta galaw hkyen ai AfCFTA zuphpawng de shang lu na matu hkyen lajang lai wa ai lam hpe ndau shana lai wa sai.



English : AU trade and industry commissioner Albert Muchanga announced Benin was to join.

Jingpho : AU hpaga yumga lam hte jak rung a komishin salang Albert Muchanga gaw Benin mungdan mung ndai hpung kaw lawm wa na re ngu shana dat ai.



English : The commissioner said, ¨We haven´t yet agreed on rules of origin and tariff con[c]essions, but the framework we have is enough to start trading on July 1, 2020¨.

Jingpho : Ginwang du wa tsun ai gaw ¨ ritkawp ni hpe anhte myit nhkrum shi ga ai, raitim anhte kaw nga ai hkrang nhprang gaw 2020 July shata 1 ya shani hta bungli galaw hpang na matu mai nga ai.¨



English : The station maintained its attitude, despite the loss of a gyroscope earlier in the space station mission, until the end of the spacewalk.

Jingpho : Dabang gaw shawng daw de lamu hpungtang laksan magam gun ai hpung dabang kaw nbungli n leng lau hkra makawp ya ai hkringrai shamat kau ai raitimung, lamu hpungtang hkawm sa ai lam ngut du hkra shi a sat lawat hpe hkang zing lai wa sai re.



English : Chiao and Sharipov reported being a safe distance from the attitude adjustment thrusters.

Jingpho : Chiao hte Sharipov gaw jet jak kanawng n-gun shapraw jak garam lajang ai kaw na shim lum nna tsan ai share kaw nga nga ai lam hpe shiga shana lai wa sai re.



English : Russian ground control activated the jets and normal attitude of the station was regained.

Jingpho : Russia masha ni gaw jet pyenli hpe ga kaw na gau mai hkra galaw sai, pyenli daru a myit masa lam hpe mi na hku bai lu la sai.



English : The case was prosecuted in Virginia because it is the home to the leading internet service provider AOL, the company who instigated the charges.

Jingpho : Virginia kaw dai amu hpe tara jun ai lam galaw lai wa ai hpa majaw nga yang ndai gaw mungkan kumpyuta hkridun galaw lajang ya ai lam a ning shawng shapraw ai lam a nta re nga nna, tara jun na lam hpe kasu alun ya ai kampani mung rai nga ai.



English : This is the first time a conviction has been gained using the legislation enacted in 2003 to curb bulk e-mail, aka spam, from unsolicited distribution into users mailboxes.

Jingpho : Ndai gaw laika pung jai lang ai ni hpang de nra sharawng ai lam shabra ai kaw na aka spam, law law hpa sa ai e-mail hpe shingdang na matu shaning 2003 na upadi tara jahkrat masat da ai lam hpe jai lang ai gaw shawng nnan lang na mara dam hpe lu hkam la sai re.



English : 21-year-old Jesus joined Manchester City last year in January 2017 from Brazilian club Palmeiras for a reported fee of £27 million.

Jingpho : 21 ning re ai Jesus gaw maning 2017 ning, January shata hta Brazilian club Palmeiras kaw na pru nna Manchester City de shabrai wan £27 hte shang wa sai.



English : Since then, the Brazilian has featured in 53 matches for the club in all competitions and has scored 24 goals.

Jingpho : Dai ten kaw na, Brazil masha ni gaw shingjawng hpawng lamang shagu hta kalap mung a matu shingjawng lamang 53 lajang da nna shang ai bawlung htihkum 24 lu lai wa sai re.



English : Dr. Lee also expressed his concern about reports that children in Turkey have now become infected with the A(H5N1) avian influenza virus without becoming ill.

Jingpho : Matut nna, tsi du Lee gaw Turkey mungdan na ma ni machyi makaw ai lam n nga ai sha A(H5N1) uli ana kanu shang hkrum ai lam hpe mung tsang nga ai lam sumtang kaw na tsun ai.



English : Some studies suggest that the disease must become less lethal before it can cause a global epidemic, he noted.

Jingpho : Nkau hka ja la ai lam ni hpaji jaw ai gaw, shi ka matsing lai wa ai gaw mungkan ting kap bra ana hpe nlu shabyin shi ai shaloi ana zinli gaw si shangun lu ai lam yawm mat ra ai re.



English : There is concern that patients may continue to infect more people by going through their daily routines if the flu symptoms remain mild.

Jingpho : Mak hkalawng ana kumla nau n madun shi yang, kaja machyi nga ai masha ni nchye ai a majaw kaga masha ni hpe hkan shakap ya na tsang nga ai.



English : Leslie Aun, a spokesperson for the Komen Foundation, said the organization adopted a new rule that does not allow grants or funding to be awarded to organizations that are under legal investigation.

Jingpho : Leslie Aun ngu ai Komen Foundation a ga shaga ahkaw ahkang nga ai wa gaw shanhte a uhpung uhpawng hku nna tara masa npu e san jep hkrum ai hpung ni hpe karum gumhpraw shing nrai, gumhpraw htuk jaw na lam ni n galaw na ngu ai hkangda tara nnan galaw da sai ngu nna tsun ai.



[Day12]

English : Komen´s policy disqualified Planned Parenthood due to a pending investigation on how Planned Parenthood spends and reports its money that is being conducted by Representative Cliff Stearns.

Jingpho : Masing nga Kanu kawa prat hpung a jai gumhpraw hpe Cliff Stearns Dak kasa hku na jai lang hparan da ai sumtang hte Masing nga Kanu kawa prat hpung gara hku gumhpraw lang da ai hpe sawk sagawn ai lam jahkring da hkrum ai majaw Komen a policy gaw Masing nga Kanu kawa prat hpung a matu rip kawp tara nshang ai.



English : Stearns is investigating whether taxes are used to fund abortions through Planned Parenthood in his role as chairman of the Oversight and Investigations Subcommittee, which is under the umbrella of the House Energy and Commerce Committee.

Jingpho : Stearns gaw dat n-gun rung hte hpaga yumga komti hpung a npu kaw na re nga ai yu hpareng na lit hte sam jep sagawn na matu komti kasha a tingyang up hku shara hku nna ahkum hkangse ni hpe kanu kawa prat masing hku nna me ma shabrai ai lam hta lang nga nlang nga hpe jep jen nga ai re.



English : Former Massachusetts governor Mitt Romney won the Florida Republican Party presidential primary election on Tuesday with over 46 percent of the vote.

Jingpho : Massachusetts a up hkang du dingsa Mitt Romeny gaw Shanun ya shani hta Florida Republican Pati a tingnyang up lata ai lamang hta tsa lam shadang 46 hte me dang wa sai.



English : Former U.S. Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich came in second with 32 percent.

Jingpho : Galoi mung na U.S Rapdaw Tingnyang up Newt Gingrich gaw tsa lam shadang 32 hte nambat lahkawng kaw hkan ai.



English : As a winner-takes-all state, Florida awarded all fifty of its delegates to Romney, pushing him ahead as the front-runner for the Republican Party nomination.

Jingpho : Dang ai wa mungdaw yawng la nga hte maren, Florida gaw Republikan Pati mying tang shawng lam a matu Romney hpe yawng a shawng hta woi awn na hku na, de a ahkang aya yawng manga shi ting hpe Romney hpang de shagrau sai.



English : Organisers of the protest said about 100,000 people turned up in German cities such as Berlin, Cologne, Hamburg, and Hanover.

Jingpho : Ninghkap hpung a woi awn zinlum ai ni gaw 100,000 daram re masha ni gaw Berlin, Cologne, Hamburg hte Hanover zawn re Germani na mare kaba ni de nhtang gayin sa wa sai nga tsun ai.



English : In Berlin, police estimated 6,500 protestors.

Jingpho : Berlin kaw pyada ni gaw ninghkap masha 6,500 daram nga na re ngu tak ma ai.



English : Protests also took place in Paris, Sofia in Bulgaria, Vilnius in Lithuania, Valetta in Malta, Tallinn in Estonia, and Edinburgh and Glasgow in Scotland.

Jingpho : Paris, Bulgaria ga na Sofia, Lithuania ga na Vilnius, Malta ga na Valetta, Estonia ga na Tallinn hte Edinburgh hte Scotland ga na Glasgow ni kaw masha n-gun madun ninghkap ai lam ni galaw lai wa sai.



English : In London, about 200 people protested outside some major copyright holders´ offices.

Jingpho : London kaw masha 200 ram wa mi gaw madung laika hkrang madu ahkang tek jum ai masha ni a rung nta shinggan kaw masha n-gun madun ninghkap ai lam galaw wa sai re.



English : Last month, there were major protests in Poland when that country signed ACTA, which has led to the Polish government deciding not to ratify the agreement, for now.

Jingpho : Lai wa sai shata hta, Polish mangdan aup ni gaw myit hkrum da ai lam hpe ngalaw ai, ACTA hpe seng htu wa ai hta Poland kaw myit nhkrum masha ni grai law wa ai.



English : Latvia and Slovakia have both delayed the process of joining ACTA.

Jingpho : Latvia hte Slovakia lahkawng yang gaw ACTA kaw shang ai lam hta hpang hkrat ma ai.



English : Animal Liberation and the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) are again calling for the mandatory installation of CCTV cameras in all Australian abattoirs.

Jingpho : Dusat Zingri Makawp na matu Dusat Shalawt hpung hte Royal Society (RSPCA) ni gaw Australian shan sat dap ni yawng hta CCTV camera ni shakap shagrin sa wa na matu kalang bai hpyi lajin nga ma ai.



English : RSPCA New South Wales chief inspector David O´Shannessy told the ABC that surveillance and inspections of abattoirs should be commonplace in Australia.

Jingpho : RSPCA Dingda Wales a jep maran ningbaw nnan David O´Shannessy ABC hpe tsun ai gaw jep maran ai lam ni hpe Australia mung ting kaw malawng nga ra ai.



English : ¨The CCTV would certainly send a strong signal to those people working with animals that their welfare is of the highest priority.¨

Jingpho : ¨Shanhte a nam dusat ni hpe tsaw dik ai hku madung da hkrum lu na matu dusat ni hte amu bungli galaw nga ai masha ni a matu CCTV kaw na atsawm sha yu maram lu na re.¨



English : The United States Geological Survey international earthquake map showed no earthquakes in Iceland in the week prior.

Jingpho : United State Lamu ga Shadawn Hpung mung shagu na nnang nawn lamu ga hta gaw ndai bat hta Iceland hta nnang nawm na lam madun da ai.



English : The Icelandic Meteorological Office also reported no earthquake activity in the Hekla area in the past 48 hours.

Jingpho : Iceland a lamu marang hte seng ai rung kaw na mung lai wa sai hkying hkum 48 hta Hekla kaw n-nang nawn ai lam n-nga lai wa ai lam hpe shiga shapraw lai wa sai re.



English : The significant earthquake activity resulting in the phase change had took place on March 10 on the northeast side of the volcano´s summit caldera.

Jingpho : Alak mi re ai nnang nawn shamu ai byin yan shai wa ai mahtai gaw wan bum pungding matu na sinpraw dingdung maga hta shata man matsum 10 ya kaw byin hpang wa sai.



English : Dark clouds unrelated to any volcanic activity were reported at the base of the mountain.

Jingpho : Sum moi chyang ni gaw wan bum a majaw byin wa ai nre ngu hpe bum lagaw hpe yu nna masha ni tsun shana ma ai.



English : The clouds presented the potential for confusion as to whether an actual eruption had taken place.

Jingpho : Sum mwi ni gaw kaja wa wan bum kapaw wa na n kapaw na lam byin wa mai masa hpe tang madun ai re.



English : The Luno had 120–160 cubic metres of fuel aboard when it broke down and high winds and waves pushed it into the breakwater.

Jingpho : Luno gaw daw mat ai, nbung grai bung ai hte dai hpe hka leng shinggang ganawng wa yang, sau cubic meter 120-160 nga ai.



English : Helicopters rescued the twelve crewmembers and the only injury was a broken nose.

Jingpho : Ji grawng pyenli ni hte magam gun jahku hpe hkyen lu ai, hkala hkrum ai gaw ladi daw ai langai sha re.



English : The 100-metre ship was en route to pick up its usual fertiliser cargo and initially officials feared the vessel could spill a load.

Jingpho : Ndai mita 100 nga ai sanghpaw gaw shi a namhpun gunrai hpe sa htaw la ai lam kaw re majaw shawng shaloi e masha kaba ni gaw sanghpaw na wansau manu mana hkaw wa na hpe hkrit tsang ma ai.



English : The proposed amendment already passed both houses in 2011.

Jingpho : Rapdaw nta lahkawng yan gaw yaw shada ai garam lajang ai lam ni hpe shaning 2011 kaw shagrin da lai wa sai re.



English : A change was made this legislative session when the second sentence was deleted first by the House of Representatives and then was passed in a similar form by the Senate Monday.

Jingpho : Dai galai shai ai lam hpe House of Representative kaw na shawng luttaw lahkawng hpe chyhten ai kaw na tara galaw ai hpe galaw wa ai ngut nna luttaw kaw langai ya shani tha dai zawn laika hpe jaw wa ai.



English : The failure of the second sentence, which proposes to ban same-sex civil unions, could possibly open the door for civil unions in the future.

Jingpho : Num, la shada hkungran hkat ai lam hpe pat na matu tsun ai ga yan nambat lahkawng n awng dang ai lam gaw htawm hpang de mung shawa pawng hpawm lam a matu ahkaw ahkang hpaw ya na lam byin wa chye ai.



[Day13]

English : Following the process, HJR-3 will be reviewed again by the next elected legislature in either 2015 or 2016 to remain in process.

Jingpho : Lawu na bungli mahkrun hku nga yang, shaning 2015 shaning 2016 hpang e lata san tawn ai upadi ka lajang rapdaw kawn amu lam yan kata kaw naw matut nga taw na matu HJR-3 hpe bai jep maram yu ai lam bai galaw sa wa na re.



English : Vautier´s achievements outside of directing include a hunger strike in 1973 against what he viewed as political censorship.

Jingpho : Dai hta lai nna Vautier na awng dang ai lam gaw mungdan lam hta pat ai ni hpe ginsat ai shaning 1973 hta malu shagam nna myit nhkrum lam madun ai ni lawm ai.



English : French law was changed. His activism went back to age 15 when he joined the French Resistance during World War II.

Jingpho : French ni a tara hpe galai shai kau sai. Shi a prat hpe bai yu yang shi gaw asak 15 hta World War II shaloi French tara galaw ai de shang wa ai.



English : He documented himself in a 1998 book.

Jingpho : Shaning 1998 laika buk kaw shi lam shi ka da ai re.



English : In the 1960s he headed back to newly-independent Algeria to teach film directing.

Jingpho : Shaning 1960 hta shi gaw shanglawt sai Algeria hpe sumla hkrung gayet ai lam hpe sharin na matu bai galaw wa ai.



English : Japanese judoka Hitoshi Saito, winner of two Olympic gold medals, has died at the age of 54.

Jingpho : Olympic hta ja dazik lahkawng madu da ai wa, Japan masha Judoka Hitoshi Saito gaw asak 54 hta si mat ai.



English : The cause of death was announced as intrahepatic bile duct cancer.

Jingpho : Dai tsi I ni gaw intrahepatic cancer majaw ngu shana wa ai.



English : He died in Osaka on Tuesday.

Jingpho : Shi gaw Chanun shani hta Osaka hta asak si mat ai.



English : As well as a former Olympic and World champion, Saito was the All Japan Judo Federation training committee chairman at the time of his death.

Jingpho : Moi na Olympic hte Mungkan ningtawn ninghkrin wa rai nga ai Saito gaw shi si ai aten hta Japan Judo ginjaw hpaji shakat jawng kompti yawng a tingyang up galaw nga lai wa ai re.



English : At least 100 people had attended the party, in order to celebrate the first anniversary of a couple whose wedding was held last year.

Jingpho : Lamang kaw masha shau htum latsa dang sa du shang lawm ma ai. Lai wa sai shaning hta hkungran lamang galaw ai yan la a laning mi ladu hkrum poi hpe shapyaw ya na matu du sa ai re ma ai.



English : A formal anniversary event was scheduled for a later date, officials said.

Jingpho : Tara shang ladu hkrum nhtoi lamang hpe du wa aten ladaw langai hta matsat da lam tara sha sharna sai re.



English : The couple had married in Texas one year ago and came to Buffalo to celebrate with friends and relatives.

Jingpho : Dai yan la gaw lai wa sai laning mi shaloi Texas mungdaw hta hkungran ga shaka la da sai rai nna manaw manang ni jinghku ni hte arau poi galaw na matu Buffalo de sa wa ai re.



English : The 30-year-old husband, who was born in Buffalo, was one of the four killed in the shooting, but his wife was not hurt.

Jingpho : Buffalo kaw shangai ai, asak 30 rai sai madu wa gaw sanat hkra na tsi ai mali kaw na langai re, raitim shi madu jan gaw hpa nbyin ai.



English : Karno is a well-known but controversial English tutor who taught under Modern Education and King´s Glory who claimed to have 9,000 students at the peak of his career.

Jingpho : Karno gaw grai mying kaba ai, raitim tsun na yak ai Ingalik sharin sara re, shi gaw shi prat a awngdang dik shara du hkra jawngma 9,000 ram ra ai King´s Glory hte Prat dep Hpaji ngu ai hpe sharin ai wa re.



English : In his notes he used words which some parents considered coarse, and he reportedly used profanity in class.

Jingpho : Shi na matsing laika kaw nkau kanu kawa ni gaw kahtak ai hku myit shalawm ya ai ngu ga si ni hte jawng gak kata masai marai ga si ni ka lai wa ai ngu ka matsing da ai.



English : Modern Education accused him of printing large advertisements on buses without authorisation and lying by saying that he was the chief English tutor.

Jingpho : Prat dep hpaji hpung gaw shi gaw Inglik sharin sara kaba re nga masu hkawm ai hte ahkang nlu ai sha shawa jawn mawdaw kaba hkan shi bungli ndau laika hkan shakap hkawm ai majaw tara jun da ma ai.



English : He has also been accused previously of copyright infringement, but was not charged.

Jingpho : Shi hpe mung ndai laman laika hkrang madu ahkang tawt lai ai wa hku mara madi shagun da ai, raitim tara gaw njun ma ai.



English : A former student said that he ´used slang in class, taught dating skills in notes, and was just like the students´ friend.´

Jingpho : Lai wa sai jawng ma tsun ai gaw shanhte gaw laika sharing gawk kaw nkaja ai nga lang ai, laika buk kaw na shani ni hpe sharin ai, ngut nna jawng ma manang ni zawn re.



English : During the last three decades, despite officially remaining a communist state, China has developed a market economy.

Jingpho : Hpang jahtum sumshi ning lapran hkan gaw, kummyunit mungdan hku tara shang ngam nga ai hpang, Miwa gaw sut masa hpe gaw sharawt lai wa sai.



English : The first economic reforms were made under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping.

Jingpho : Alat ningshawn na sut masa garam ai lam hpe gaw Deng Xiaoping wa ningbaw galaw ai kata kaw galaw lai wa sai re.



English : Since then, China´s economic size has grown by 90 times.

Jingpho : Dai aten kaw na, myuwa hpaga gaw 90 lang daram kaba wa ai.



English : For the first time, last year China exported more cars than Germany and surpassed the United States as the biggest market for this industry.

Jingpho : Shawng nnan lang a matu, lai wa sai shaning hta Miwa gaw Germany hta grau nna mawdaw ni hpe maigan de shapraw ya ai lam galaw lai wa nna ndai jak magam bungli a kaba htum ai gat lawk hku nna United States hpe lai kau da sai re.



English : China´s GDP could be larger than the United States within two decades.

Jingpho : Shaning hkun ning daram hta Miwa a GDP gaw United States na hta grau law wa chye ai re.



English : Tropical Storm Danielle, fourth named storm of the 2010 Atlantic hurricane season, has formed in the eastern Atlantic Ocean.

Jingpho : Shaning 2010 na Atlantic laru shata kaw Kahtet mungkan daw hte seng ai nbung laru ngu mying ai nbung laru gaw Alantic pang lai a sinpraw hkran maga de byin lai wa sai re.



English : The storm, located approximately 3,000 miles from Miami, Florida, has maximum sustained winds of 40 mph (64 kph).

Jingpho : Dai nbung laru gaw Florida, Maimi kaw na deng 3,000 daram tsan nna yawm dik nbung bung shadang 40 mph (64 kph) nga ai.



[Day14]

English : Scientists at the National Hurricane Center predict that Danielle will strengthen to a hurricane by Wednesday.

Jingpho : Amyu sha nbung laru ginjaw kaw na hpung tang hpaji ninghkring ni shadu ai gaw Danielle gaw bat hpang masum ya hta nbung laru langai byin wa na matu n-gun shaja dat ya na re.



English : As the storm is far from landfall, it remains difficult to assess potential impact to the United States or Caribbean.

Jingpho : Dai nbung laru gaw ga galapran taw ai hte tsan taw ai majaw shi gaw United State dai nrai Caribbean de shang na amtu yak taw ai re.



English : Born in the Croatian capital, Zagreb, Bobek gained fame while playing for Partizan Belgrade.

Jingpho : Croatia a muklum, Zagreb kaw shangai ai, Bobek gaw Partizan Belgrade a matu gasup ai kaw na mying kaba wa ai.



English : He joined them in 1945 and stayed until 1958.

Jingpho : Shi gaw shanhte hte 1945 hta ta gin dun nna 1958 du hkra rau nga lai wa sai.



English : During his time with the team, he scored 403 goals in 468 appearances.

Jingpho : Shi a ginsup hpung hte rau re ai shaloi gaw, 468 lang ginsup ai kaw na goal 403 lu htawng bang da lu ai.



English : No one else has ever made more appearances or scored more goals for the club than Bobek.

Jingpho : Bobek hta lai nna dai uhpung a matu kadai mung goal nlu galaw ai dai nrai mying nkaba ya ai.



English : In 1995 he was voted the best player in Partizan´s history.

Jingpho : 1995 hta shi hpe Partizan a labau hta ningtawn dik ginsup masha langai hku na lata da sai.



English : The celebrations started with a special show by the world-renowned group Cirque du Soleil.

Jingpho : Shakawn shagrau lamang hpe mungkan ting mying gumhkawng ai uhpung Cirque du Soleil ni a alak mi re ai madun ai lamang hte hpang lai wa sai re.



English : It was followed by the Istanbul State Symphony Orchestra, a Janissary band, and the singers Fatih Erkoç and Müslüm Gürses.

Jingpho : De a hpang kaw gaw Istanbul mungdaw a Symphony madum sumpyi hpung, Janissary dum sumpyi hpung hte mahkawn ninghkring Fatih Erkoç hte Müslüm Gürses ni rai nga ai.



English : Then Whirling Dervishes took to the stage.

Jingpho : Dai hpang Whirling Dervishes hpung ni gaw pyinra ntsa shara la mat ai.



English : Turkish diva Sezen Aksu performed with the Italian tenor Alessandro Safina and Greek singer Haris Alexiou.

Jingpho : Turkish diva Sezen Aksu gaw Italy Alessandro Safina hte Greek kaw na yung ngoi ning hkring Haris Alexiou hpe hkrang shala ai.



English : To finish, Turkish dance group Fire of Anatolia performed the show ¨Troy¨.

Jingpho : Shangut shakre na matu, Anatolia a wan ngu mying ai Turkish ka uhpung ni gaw ¨Troy¨ madun dan ai lam hpe hkrang shala lai wa sai re.



English : Peter Lenz, a 13-year-old motorcycle racer, has died after being involved in a crash at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway.

Jingpho : Peter Lenz, asak 13 re ai sengke shingjawng ai wa gaw Indianapolis sengke jawn lam kaw adawt hkrum ai kaw lawm nna si mat ai.



English : While on his warm-up lap, Lenz fell off his bike, and was then struck by fellow racer Xavier Zayat.

Jingpho : Shi sai shalum ginsup taw ai laman e Lenz gaw shi a lagaw leng ntsa kaw na di hkrat mat ai, ngut na shi hte arau shingjawng ai wa Xavier Zayat hte adawt hkrup ai.



English : He was immediately attended to by the on-track medical staff and transported to a local hospital where he later died.

Jingpho : Shi gaw kalang ta lam ntsa na tsi magam gun e gawn lajang ai lam hkrum nna, hpang e shi si mat ai shara, buga tsi rung de htaw sa da hkrum ai re.



English : Zayat was unhurt in the accident.

Jingpho : Ndai mabyin hta Zayat gaw hkala nba nhkrum lai wa ai re.



English : Regarding the global financial situation, Zapatero continued by saying that ¨the financial system is a part of the economy, a crucial part.

Jingpho : Mungkan ting a sut masa hpe mahta nna Zapatero matut tsun ai gaw ¨sut gumhpraw hte seng ai gawda hkrang gaw sut lu nga mai lam a ahkyak dik ai daw langai mi rai nga ai.



English : We have a year-long financial crisis, which has had its most acute moment in the past two months, and I think now the financial markets are beginning to recover.¨

Jingpho : Anhte hta shaning tup na ja gumhpraw ginchyum chyat mat wa ai, lai wa sai shata lahkawng hta gaw grau nna laja lana sawng mat ai, dai hpang de she ngai shadu ai, ja gumhpraw gat lawk ni bai kaja hpang wa ai.¨



English : Last week, Naked News announced that it would dramatically increase its international language mandate to news reporting, with three new broadcasts.

Jingpho : Lai sai bat hta Naked Shiga dap kaw na shanhte gaw gau ngwi ngwi hte shanhte a shi shana dap nnan masum hte rau shiga ni hpe mungkan ga gada hte seng ai aga ni hte shapoi sa na matu masing jahkrat masat sa wa mai ai lam ndau shana dat ai.



English : Already reporting in English and Japanese, the global organization is launching Spanish, Italian, and Korean-language programs, for television, the web, and mobile devices.

Jingpho : English hte Japan hku gaw mi kaw na shiga shapoi taw sai re nna mungkan ting hte seng ai uhpung uhpawng ni gaw Spain ga, Italy ga, Korea ga lamang ni hpe hkrangmu shiga, internet laika man ni hte gun hkawm mai ai jak ni a matu shabra hpang taw sai re.



English : ¨Luckily nothing happened to me, but I saw a macabre scene, as people tried to break windows in order to get out.

Jingpho : Gam kaja ai majaw ngai kaw hpa nbyin ai, raitim si mat sai masha ni wa shinggan de lu le na matu hku wawt ni hpe adup ga taw ai lam hpe shingran pra pra mu ai.



English : People were hitting the panes with chairs, but the windows were unbreakable.

Jingpho : Masha ni gaw hkuwawt pat maka hpe lahkum hte gayet ma timung hkuwawt chyinghka ni gaw daw hten ai lam nnga ai.



English : One of the panes finally broke, and they started to get out by the window,¨ said survivor Franciszek Kowal.

Jingpho : ¨Hpang jahtum hta pat langai ga mat nna shanhte ni gaw hku wawt kaw nna le hpang wa masai,¨ ngu nna asak lawt wa ai Franciszek Kowal tsun lai wa ai re.



English : Stars give off light and heat because of the energy made when hydrogen atoms are merged (or fused) together to form heavier elements.

Jingpho : Hydrogen atom ni gaw grai li ai nhprang jet ni hpe hkrang shapraw na matu rau sha majaw (sh gahkying) mat ai shaloi shagan ni gaw tsam n-gun na majaw nhtoi hte kahtet ai hpe shapru ai.



English : Scientists are working to create a reactor that can make energy in the same way.

Jingpho : Hpungtang hpaji ninghkring ni gaw tsam n-gun hpe bung ai lam hku na lu galaw ai nuclear bunghkrawng langai hpe shapraw na matu galaw taw nga ma ai.



[Day15]

English : This, however, is a very hard problem to solve and will take many years before we see useful fusion reactors built.

Jingpho : Kaning rai timung, ndai manghkang gaw loi loi hte hparan mai ai manghkang nrai nga ai. Kaja nan akyu rawng ai shingja dat kabaw bunghkrawng hpe mu lu na matu gaw shaning loi naw na na re.



English : The steel needle floats on top of the water because of surface tension.

Jingpho : Dai hpri sumri gaw hka ntsa kaw nga taw ai re hpa majaw nga yang hka gaw lagi ja taw na re.



English : Surface tension happens because the water molecules at the surface of the water are strongly attracted to each other more than they are to the air molecules above them.

Jingpho : Hka ntsa man na hka molecule ni a majaw ntsa man ja dingkang lam byin ai gaw de lahta na nbung molecule ni hta langai hte langai ngang ngang matut da ai lam a majaw re.



English : The water molecules make an invisible skin on the water's surface that allows things like the needle to float on top of the water.

Jingpho : Hka bungshi ni gaw samit zawn re arai ni hpe hka ntsa waw taw shangun lu ai baw hka ntsa man kaw na nmu lu ai hpyi ni hpe galaw ya ai re.



English : The blade on a modern ice skate has a double edge with a concave hollow between them. The two edges allow for a better grasp of the ice, even when tilted.

Jingpho : Ya prat na hkyen pa din hkyepdin ni a ningshang hta nten lahkawng lawm nna, shanhte a ka´ang hta e hku zawn re lawm chye ai. Ndai nten lahkawng gaw hkyen pa ntsa e ding yau mat yang pi n galau hkra magra da ya lu ai.



English : Because the bottom of the blade is slightly curved, as the blade tilts to one side or the other, the edge which is in contact with the ice also curves.

Jingpho : Nhtu a htum pa maga gaw magaw taw ai majaw, nhtu a lahkawng yan maga nchyan de, ndung gaw hkyen hte hkra taw ai majaw magaw taw nga ai.



English : This causes the skater to turn. If the skates tilt to the right, the skater turns right, if the skates tilt to the left, the skater turns left.

Jingpho : Ndai a majaw leng jawn ai wa gayin mat ai re. Lama na leng jawn ai wa gaw lahkra maga she gayin yang gaw hkra maga de sa mat na re, lama na lapai maga de gayin ai rai yang pai maga de yawng mat na re.



English : To return to their previous energy level, they must get rid of the extra energy they got from the light.

Jingpho : Kaja ai ngun level bai lu na matu shanhte gaw wan kaw na lu ai jan taw ai ngun ni hpe shayen kau ra na re.



English : They do this by emitting a tiny particle of light called a ¨photon¨.

Jingpho : Dai hpe shanhte gaw sumla ngu ai wan kaw na kaji ai ayun ya ni hpe shapraw nna galaw wa ai.



English : Scientists call this process ¨stimulated emission of radiation¨ because the atoms are stimulated by the bright light, causing the emission of a photon of light, and light is a type of radiation.

Jingpho : Hpaji rawng ni gaw dai lam hpe radio shapraw na matu ngun jaw ai ngut shaga ma ai hpamajaw nga yang atom ni hpe wan ni kaw na ngun kaw ai, wan na photon shapraw ai hpe byin shangun ai majaw re ngut nna wan gaw radio myu mi re.



English : The next picture shows the atoms emitting photons. Of course, in reality photons are a lot smaller than those in the picture.

Jingpho : Dai laga sumla gaw atom shapraw ai lam hpe madun ai re. kaja nang yang, photon ni gaw dai kaw madun da ai hta grau kaji ai re.



English : Photons are even smaller than the stuff that makes up atoms!

Jingpho : Photo ni gaw atom hpe galaw ai ri ni hta grau kaji ai re.



English : After hundreds of hours of operation the filament in the bulb eventually burns out and the light bulb no longer works.

Jingpho : Hking latsa hku bungli galaw ngut ai hpang wan pu kaw na wan sumri ni gaw hkru wa ai ngut nna wan pu mung bungli ngalaw mat sai.



English : The light bulb then needs replacing. It is necessary to be careful in replacing the light bulb.

Jingpho : Ndai wan pu hpe galai kau ai lam galaw ya ra sai. Wan pu galai ai shaloi sadi sahka ai la gaw ahkyak la nga ai.



English : First, the switch for the light fixture needs to be turned off or the cable disconnected.

Jingpho : Shawng nnan, wan hkalok hpe byeng mayu yang wan shawng sat kau u dai nrai wan sumri hpe shawng dik kau u.



English : This is because electricity flowing into the socket where the metallic part of bulb sits can give you a severe electric shock if you touch the inside of the socket or the metal base of the bulb while it is still partly in the socket.

Jingpho : Dai gaw wan ngun gaw wan pu kaw na gumhpaw de sa wa nna wan ngu hpe jaw ai majaw re nang dai socket kata kaw na gumhpraw hpe sa jum yang dai kaw wan ngun naw nga taw na re.



English : The major organ of the circulatory system is the heart, which pumps the blood.

Jingpho : Hkum kaw na sai hpe gayin ya ai gaw salum re, shi gaw dsai hpe tu ya ai re.



English : Blood goes away from the heart in tubes called arteries and comes back to the heart in tubes called veins. The smallest tubes are called capillaries.

Jingpho : Salum kaw na tube kata sai hkawm mat ai hpe sai dat lasa ngu tsun nna tube kata hku salum de bai wa ai hpe sai ginhtan lasa ngu tsun ai. Grai kaja ai tube ni hpe gaw kara zawn grai kaji ai sai lam ni ngu ai.



English : A triceratops´ teeth would have been able to crush not only leaves but even very tough branches and roots.

Jingpho : Triceratop a wa gaw namlap sha nre hpun hte aru ni hpe ma dang gawa ai re.



English : Some scientists think Triceratops ate cycads, which are a type of plant that was common in the Cretaceous.

Jingpho : Hpungtang hpaji ninghkring ni gaw cycads ngu mying ai Cretaceous kaw mu mada lu ai hpun ni hpe Triceratop ni sha ma ai ngu shadu ma ai.



English : These plants look like a small palm tree with a crown of sharp, spiky leaves.

Jingpho : Ndai hpun ni gaw lap masen ai, jan mau hkrang zawn re namhtan hpun kaji zawn san ai.



English : A Triceratops could have used its strong beak to strip off the leaves before eating the trunk.

Jingpho : Triceratop ni gaw dai hpun mat hpe nsha shi yang alap ni hpe shi ngup masen hte yeng kau lu ai.



English : Other scientists argue that these plants are very poisonous so it is unlikely that any dinosaur ate them, even though today the sloth and other animals like the parrot (a descendant of the dinosaurs) can eat poisonous leaves or fruit.

Jingpho : Kaga hpungtang hpaji ninghkring ni dang rang ai lam gaw ndai hpun ni gaw gung grai rawng ai baw rai nga ai, dai majaw ndai prat hta na sangang ni hte hkai ke (moi prat na dusat ni kaw na yu hkrat wa ai) zawn re ai kaga dusat ni gung rawng ai namlap namsi ni hpe sha ai raitim pyi moi prat na dusat ni shanhte hpe sha lai wa ai lam gaw nau nmai byin na re.



English : How would Io´s gravity pull on me? If you stood on the surface of Io, you would weigh less than you do on Earth.

Jingpho : Lo a ginding aga gang n-gun gara hku na ngai hpe gang da ai kun? Lama nang lo ntsa man hta tsap yang, Mungkan ga kaw nga ai hta joi si grai tsang na ra ai.



English : A person who weighs 200 pounds (90kg) on Earth would weigh about 36 pounds (16kg) on Io. So the gravity, of course, pulls less on you.

Jingpho : Mungkan ga kaw pound 200 (90kg) li ai masha gaw lo kaw pound 36 (16kg) sha li ai. Dai majaw ginding ga n-gun nang hpe nau n-gang da lu ai.



[Day16]

English : The Sun doesn´t have a crust like the Earth that you can stand on. The whole Sun is made out of gases, fire, and plasma.

Jingpho : Jan kaw gaw mungkan ga kaw na jawn nang mai tsap ai ntsa lam n-nga ai. Jan yawng hpe gaw dat nsa, wan hte dat yi la n-gun bung ai dat nsa ni rau galaw da ai re.



English : The gas becomes thinner as you go farther from the center of the Sun.

Jingpho : Dat nsa gaw Jan ka´ang kaw na tsan magang grau hpa wa magang re.



English : The outer-part we see when we look at the Sun is called the photosphere, which means ¨ball of light¨.

Jingpho : Jan hpe yu ai shaloi mu lu ai shinggan maga daw hpe gaw nhtoi shing ¨photosphere¨, nga ma ai. Nhtoi bawlung ngu mung lachyum mai shapraw nga ai.



English : About three thousand years later, in 1610, Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei used a telescope to observe that Venus has phases, just as the moon does.

Jingpho : Shaning hkying masum na ai shaloi, 1610 ning hta, Itali amyu sha lamu shagan hpaji ninghkring wa Galileo Galilei gaw shata zawn sha Venus mung rawt jat taw ai lam hpe sumtsan yu myiset lang nna maram yu ai.



English : Phases happen because only the side of Venus (or of the Moon) facing the Sun is lighted. The phases of Venus supported the theory of Copernicus that the planets go around the Sun.

Jingpho : Byin yan ni gaw byin ai hpa majaw nga yang Venus (sh Shata) a maga mi de sha Jan htoi nga ai hpe man hkrum ai. Venus a byin yan ni gaw gintawng ni gaw Jan hpe shinggrup ai ngu ai Copernicus a myit ningmu hpe wa madi shadaw da ai.



English : Then, a few years later in 1639, an English astronomer named Jeremiah Horrocks observed a transit of Venus.

Jingpho : Bai shaning kachyi myi na mat ai hpang shaning 1639 kaw, Jeremiah Horrocks mying ai Englik hpungtang lamu hkam jak gawt masha gaw Venus a lai sa ai lam hpe bai mu sagawn la lu ai.



English : England had experienced a long period of peace after the reconquest of the Danelaw.

Jingpho : England gaw Dane ni uphkang ai upadi e bai padang dip la ngut ai kaw na sim sa ai aten galu hpe hkrum sha lai wa sai re.



English : However in 991 Ethelred was faced with a Viking fleet larger than any since Guthrum´s a century earlier.

Jingpho : Kaning rai nme law, 991 ning hta Ethelred gaw lai wa sai Guthrum a shaning ladaw shaloi na hta grau kaba ai panglai damya ni hte hkrum hkra wa ai.



English : This fleet was led by Olaf Trygvasson, a Norwegian with ambitions to reclaim his country from Danish domination.

Jingpho : Ndai chyang lawa ai hpung hpe Olaf Trygvasson kaw na woi awn ai, yaw shada lam kaba ai Norwegian wa gaw Danish ka´up tawn ai kaw na shi mungdan hpe bai hpyi la na matu re.



English : After initial military setbacks, Ethelred was able to agree to terms with Olaf, who returned to Norway to try to gain his kingdom with mixed success.

Jingpho : Shawng na hpyen dap hpang de htingnut mat ai hpang Ethelred gaw Norway mungdan de bai wa nna shi a hkawhkam mungdan hpe lapran madang awng dang lam hte bai lu la na matu shakut taw nga ai Olaf hte myit hkrum lu ai.



English : Hangeul is the only purposely invented alphabet in popular daily use. The alphabet was invented in 1444 during the reign of King Sejong (1418 – 1450).

Jingpho : Hangeul gaw mying gumhkawng ai shani shagu jai lang ai hta yaw shada nna gyin shalat da ai laika kanu re. Dai laika kanu hpe gaw hkawhkam Sejong uphkang ai shaning (1418-1450) lamang, shaning 1444 hta gyin shalat lai wa sai re.



English : King Sejong was the fourth king of the Joseon Dynasty and is one of the most highly regarded.

Jingpho : Sejong hkawhkam gaw Joseon hkaw dung ladaw a mali lang na hkawhkawm rai nna na chying hkungga ging ai hkawhkam langai rai nga ai.



English : He originally named the Hangeul alphabet Hunmin Jeongeum, which means ¨the correct sounds for the instruction of the people¨.

Jingpho : Hangeul laika kanu hpe Hunmin Jeongeum ngu nna mying jaw dat ai, lachyum gaw ¨masha ni a matsun madun lam a matu jaw ai nsen ni¨ rai nga ai.



English : There are many theories to how Sanskrit came into existence. One of them is about an Aryan migration from the west into India who brought their language with them.

Jingpho : Sanskrit gara hku nga nga wa ai lam hte seng nna myit jasat ai lam grai law wa myi nga ai. Shanhte kaw na langai myi gaw, sinna kaw na India de shanhte a a-ga ni hpe la wa ai Aryan buhkawmg htawtsit hpung langai a lam rai nga ai.



English : Sanskrit is an ancient language and is comparable to the Latin language spoken in Europe.

Jingpho : Sanskrit gaw moi na aga langai re nna dai hpe Uropa a Latin aga hte mai shingdaw yu ai.



English : The earliest known book in the world was written in Sanskrit. After the compilation of Upanishads, Sanskrit just faded due to hierarchy.

Jingpho : Mungkan hta jau dik htum ai ngu chye lu ai laika buk hpe Sanskrit hku ka da ai re. Upanishad rau pawng ngut ai hpang kaw na gaw, aya nem tsaw madang hkan ai masa a majaw Sanskrit gaw hkoi mat lai wa ai re.



English : Sanskrit is a very complex and rich language, which has served to be the source for many modern Indian languages, just like Latin is the source for European languages like French and Spanish.

Jingpho : Sanskrit ga gaw prat dep Kala ga hpan law law a npawt mahta ai ga, ga si grai law ai hte hkum ai a ga langai re, French hte Spanish ga zawn sha Uropa dan a ga hpan npawt madung re nga ai Latin ga zawn sha re.



English : With the battle for France over, Germany began to get ready to invade the island of Britain.

Jingpho : Germani mungdan gaw France mungdan hte majan kasat ngut ai hpang Britain mungdan a zunlawng de hpyen n-gun hte shang na matu shajin ma ai.



English : Germany code-named the attack "Operation Sealion". Most of the British Army´s heavy weapons and supplies had been lost when it evacuated from Dunkirk, so the army was fairly weak.

Jingpho : Germany ni gaw dai hpe Operation Sealion ngu shamying ma ai. Dia hpe Dunkirk kaw na yen kau ai shaloi British hpyen dap na lengnak kaba ni law malawng hten mat ai, dai majaw dai hpyen dap ni gaw chyi mi ngun yawm mat ai.



English : But the Royal Navy was still much stronger than the German Navy ("Kriegsmarine") and could have destroyed any invasion fleet sent across the English Channel.

Jingpho : Raitim Hkawhkam amyu a Hka dap gaw German hka dap (¨Kriegsmarine¨) hta grau n-gun ja ai majaw Inglik maga de shana nna shang gasat na matu nmai byin chye ai.



English : However, very few Royal Navy ships were based near the likely invasion routes as the admirals were afraid they would be sunk by German air attack.

Jingpho : Kaning nga tim, shanhte a ningbaw ni gaw German ni a pyenli hte htim gasat na hpe hkrit ai majaw, Hkawhkam Amyu Hka dap sanghpaw ni hpe hpyen htim mai ai lam kaw loi mi shada da ma ai.



English : Let´s start with an explanation about Italy´s plans. Italy was mainly the ¨little brother¨ of Germany and Japan.

Jingpho : Italy a masing ni hpe sanglang dan ai lam kaw na shawng hpang wa ga. Italy gaw Germany hte Japan a madung hku na ¨kanau kaji¨ rai lai wa sai.



English : It had a weaker army and a weaker navy, although they had just built four new ships right before the beginning of the war.

Jingpho : Shanhte ni majan hpang ai hte sanghpaw nnan mali gaw shachyaw ngut ai rai tim shanhte kaw grau n-gun nrawng ai hpyen dap hte hka dap hpe lu lai wa sai.



English : Italy´s main goals were African countries. To capture those countries, they would need to have a troop launching pad, so as troops could sail across the Mediterranean Sea and invade Africa.

Jingpho : Italy ni a awngdan ai lam gaw African mungdan ni kaw re. dai mungdan ni hpe shanhte gaw masha law law hte Mediterranean panglai hpe lai nna Africa hpe aup hkang na re.



English : For that, they had to get rid of British bases and ships in Egypt. Besides those actions, Italy´s battleships were not supposed to do anything else.

Jingpho : De a matu, shanhte gaw British sanghpaw ni, daru ni hpe Egutu kaw na shapraw kau ra na. Dai hku hkrang shapraw ai hta, Itali a hpyen sanghpaw ni hpe hpa nan nmai galaw ai.



[Day17]

English : Now for Japan. Japan was an island country, just like Britain.

Jingpho : Ya na Japan mung gaw panglai kata na Britain zawn re ai zinlawng mungdan kaji langai re.



English : Submarines are ships designed to travel underwater, and remain there for an extended amount of time.

Jingpho : Hka npu kaw chye hkawm ai sanghpaw ni gaw hka kata hkawm na matu shapraw da ai sanghpaw ni re, ngut na ngam ai aten ni hta gaw dai kaw nga nga na matu re.



English : Submarines were used in World War I and World War II. Back then they were very slow and had a very limited shooting range.

Jingpho : Hka shang sanghpaw ni hpe Mungkan Majan I hte II hta lang ma ai. Dai ten ni hta dai ni gaw grai naw lanyan nna tsan de gap shading ai lam mung shadawn sharam de naw re.



English : In the beginning of the war they mostly travelled on top of the sea, but as radar began developing and becoming more accurate the submarines were forced to go under water to avoid being seen.

Jingpho : Majan shawng maga de gaw shanhte ni panglai ntsa hku sha malawng hkrun lam hkawm ai, raitim radar hpe gin shalat hpang wa ai hte grau tup hkrak byin wa ai hte gaw hka shang sanghpaw ni hpe hka kata nmu lu shangun mayu ai majaw lang shaja wa ma ai.



English : German submarines were called U-Boats. The Germans were very good at navigating and operating their submarines.

Jingpho : Germany ni a hka npu kaw hkawm ai sanghpaw ni hpe gaw U-Sanghpaw ni ngu nna shaga lai wa sai re. Germany masha ni gaw hka lam hkawm sa ai lam hte shanhte na hka shang sanghpaw hte hpyen gasat ai lam hta grai kung kyang lai wa ai re.



English : Because of their success with submarines, after the war Germans aren´t trusted to have many of them.

Jingpho : Hka shang sanghpaw hte awngdang lam lu la ai majaw, majan ngut ai hpang Germani ni hpe grai naw nga na re ngu nkam ma ai.



English : Yes! King Tutankhamun, sometimes referred to as ¨King Tut¨ or ¨The Boy King¨, is one of the most well known ancient Egyptian kings in modern times.

Jingpho : Rai sa! Hkaw hkam Tutankhamun hpe kalang lang hkaw hkam Tut dai nrai hkaw hkam kasha ngut tsun dan ma ai, shi gaw ya prat hta ram ram chye ai Egypt hkaw hkam ni kaw na langai re.



English : Interestingly, he was not considered to be very important in ancient times and was not recorded on most ancient king lists.

Jingpho : Myit shang sha hpa gaw shi hpe moi prat na aten hta grai ahkyak ai masha hku nsawn la hkrum nna moi prat na hkaw hkam jahpan hta mung n-matsing da hkrum nga ai.



English : However, the discovery of his tomb in 1922 made him a celebrity. While many tombs of the past were robbed, this tomb was left virtually undisturbed.

Jingpho : Hpa mi raitim 1922 hta shi a lup hpe mu sawk tam ai gaw shi hpe masha law law hpe chye wa shangun ai. Lup law law hpe lagu la nga ai laman ndai lup gaw dingbai dingna nnga ai sha ngam taw nga ai.



English : Most of the items buried with Tutankhamun have been well preserved, including thousands of artefacts made from precious metals and rare stones.

Jingpho : Manu dan ai gyu ni hte lung seng ni hte galaw da ai masha lang rung rai hkying hku lawm ai rai law malawng hpe Tutankhamun hta atsawm lup makoi da ai.



English : The invention of spoke wheels made Assyrian chariots lighter, faster, and better prepared to outrun soldiers and other chariots.

Jingpho : Spoke dingsen leng byin shalat ai Assyrian leng gaw grau tsang hkra, grau lawan hkra hpyen ni hpe atsawm shingle kau hkra hte kaga hpyen leng ni hta grau kaja hkra byin shalat da ai.



English : Arrows from their deadly crossbows could penetrate the armor of rival soldiers. About 1000 B.C., the Assyrians introduced the first cavalry.

Jingpho : Hkrit na zawn re ai ndan pala ni gaw hpyen wa a n-gang palawng kata du hkra lu shang ai re. 1000 B.C ram hta Assyrian ni gaw shawng na ndan sinat hpe madun lai wa sai re.



English : A cavalry is an army that fights on horseback. The saddle had not yet been invented, so the Assyrian cavalry fought on the bare backs of their horses.

Jingpho : Gumra dap ni gaw gumra hte hpyen kasat na matu re. Gumra hking hpe gin shalat ai lam rai nnga shi ai. Dai majaw Assyrian gumra dap ni gaw gumra ntsa hpa nlawm ai dai hku dung nna gasat ma ai.



English : We know many Greek politicians, scientists, and artists. Possibly the most known person of this culture is Homer, the legendary blind poet, who composed two masterpieces of Greek literature: the poems Iliad and Odyssey.

Jingpho : Anhte gaw Greek mung masa la ni, hpungtang hpaji ninghkring ni hte shingni masha law law hpe chye ai. Ndai ni kaw na chye dik masha gaw Homer,Greek laili laika hta reng dik ai ga shagawp lahkawng: Iliad hte Odyssey hpe shagawp da ai mying gumhkawng ai myi nmu ga shagawp sara re.



English : Sophocles and Aristophanes are still popular playwrights and their plays are considered to be among the greatest works of world literature.

Jingpho : Sophocle ni hte Aristophane ni gaw mying naw gumhkawng nga ai kamung naura ka sara ni rai nna shanhte a kamung naura ni gaw mungkan laika a hkik hkam htum ai lata bungli ni ngu na sawn la hkrum ma ai.



English : Another famous Greek is a mathematician Pythagoras, mostly known for his famous theorem about relations of the sides of right triangles.

Jingpho : Kaga mying gumhkawng ai Greek masha langai mi gaw shi a mying gumhkawng ai man masum jut a la hkra maga man ni matut mahkai ai lam ni hte seng nna shaleng dan ai gashawn ni a majaw law malawng e chye lai wa ai sawn hpan hpaji ninghking Pythagoras re nga ai.



English : There are varying estimates for how many people speak Hindi. It is estimated to be between the second and fourth most commonly spoken language in the world.

Jingpho : Masha kade ram wa mi Hindi ga hpe amyu myu hku shaga ai ngu ai hku tau sawn yu ai lam ni nga ai re. Ndai gaw mungkan hta nambat lahawng hte nambat mali law htum law malawng shaga hkrum ai ga hpan re ai ngu tau sawn da hkrum lai wa sai re.



English : The number of native speakers varies depending on whether or not very closely related dialects are counted.

Jingpho : Jauman ga shaga ai masha jahpan ni gaw buga ginra ga ni htep ai hta hkan nna shai mat wa ai.



English : Estimates range from 340 million to 500 million speakers, and as many as 800 million people can understand the language.

Jingpho : Sawn yu ai daram, ga shaga ai marai wan 340 kaw na wan 500 lapran hte wan 800 daram gaw tsun shaga ga hpe chye na ma ai.



English : Hindi and Urdu are similar in vocabulary but different in script; in everyday conversations, speakers of both languages can usually understand each other.

Jingpho : Hindi hte Urdu gaw ga bungai raitim laika nbung ai; ga shagu, shaga ai lahkang yang shada da chye na ma ai.



English : Around the 15th century, northern Estonia was under great cultural influence of Germany.

Jingpho : Tsa ban 15th daram hta, Estonia dingdung gaw Germany a htunghking grai nan ka´up da ai ten re.



English : Some German monks wanted to bring God closer to the native people, so they invented the Estonian literal language.

Jingpho : Nkau Germany hpunggyi ni gaw Karai Kasang hpe masha ni hte grau ni htep hkra la wa mayu ma ai, dai majaw shanhte gaw Estonian laika hpe galaw shapraw lai wa ai re.



English : It was based on the German alphabet and one character ¨Õ/õ¨ was added.

Jingpho : Dai hpe German laika kanu kaw na la da ai re ngut nna ¨Õ/õ¨ hpe kahtap bang da ai re.



English : As time passed, many words that were borrowed from German coalesced. This was the beginning of enlightenment.

Jingpho : Aten ni lai wa sai zawn, German kaw na la da ai ga ni yawng gayau wa sai. Dai gaw chye wa ai a ningpawt re.



English : Traditionally, the heir to the throne would go straight into the military after finishing school.

Jingpho : Jawng ngut ai hpang hkaw hkam aya hpe hpyen dap de shap da na re.



[Day18]

English : However, Charles went to university at Trinity College, Cambridge where he studied Anthropology and Archaeology, and later History, earning a 2:2 (a lower second class degree).

Jingpho : Raitim, Charles gaw Cambridge kaw na Trinity dakkasu hta Anthropology hte Archaeology hpe sharing wa sai, ngut nna hpang de labau, 2:2 (madang nem ai jam mau) hpe lu wa ai.



English : Charles was the first member of the British Royal Family to be awarded a degree.

Jingpho : Hkaw hkam kasha Charles gaw British hkawhkam nta masha ni kaw na shawng nnan jam mau gup lu ai wa rai nga ai.



English : European Turkey (eastern Thrace or Rumelia in the Balkan peninsula) includes 3% of the country.

Jingpho : Europa na Turkey (Balkan zundawn na sinpraw Thrace Rumelia) gaw mungdan a 3% lawm ai.



English : The territory of Turkey is more than 1,600 kilometres (1,000 mi) long and 800 km (500 mi) wide, with a roughly rectangular shape.

Jingpho : Turkey madu ai ginwang ni gaw 1,600 kilometers (1,000 mi) galu nna 800 km (500 mi) hta grau dam nga nna rectangular hkrang zawn rai nga ai.



English : Turkey´s area, including lakes, occupies 783,562 square kilometres (300,948 sq mi), of which 755,688 square kilometres (291,773 sq mi) are in south west Asia and 23,764 square kilometres (9,174 sq mi) in Europe.

Jingpho : Nawng ni ma lawm, Turkey mungdan a shara gaw, 783,562 square kilometres (300,948 sq mi) kaba ai re nna, 755,562 square kilometres (291,773 sq mi) gaw Asia dan a dingda sinna maga re nhktawm 23,764 square kilometres (9,174 sq mi) gaw Europe maga hkran de re.



English : Turkey´s area makes it the world´s 37th-largest country, and is about the size of Metropolitan France and the United Kingdom combined.

Jingpho : Turkey shara gaw mungkan hta 37th kaba dik re, ngut nna dai gaw Metropolitan France hte the United Kingdom pawng da ai daram re.



English : Turkey is encircled by seas on three sides: the Aegean Sea to the west, the Black Sea to the north and the Mediterranean Sea to the south.

Jingpho : Turkey mungdan hpe panglai masum gaw shinggrup tawn ai: sinna maga de gaw Aegean panglai, ding dung maga de gaw Panglai Chyang hte dingda maga de gaw Hkarang panglai ni rai nga ai.



English : Luxembourg has a long history but its independence dates from 1839.

Jingpho : Luxembourg gaw grai galu ai ahtik labau lu ai rai timung shi a shang lawt lu ai nhtoi hpang ai gaw shaning 1839 kaw na she re.



English : Present-day parts of Belgium were part of Luxembourg in the past but became Belgian after the 1830s Belgian Revolution.

Jingpho : Belgium na ya aten ni gaw Luxembourg na moi na aten ni re raitim Belgian gaw shaning 1830 Belgian Revolution hpang byin wa ai re.



English : Luxembourg has always tried to remain a neutral country but it was occupied in both World War I and World War II by Germany.

Jingpho : Luxembourg gaw galoi mung ka-ang ai mungdan langai hku nga shakut ai, raitim Mungkan Majan I hte Mungkan Majan II hta gaw Germany ni shi hpe aup hkang wa sai.



English : In 1957 Luxembourg became a founding member of the organization which is today known as the European Union.

Jingpho : Shaning 1957 hta Luxembourg gaw dai ni Uropa Munghpawm ngu mying ai uhpung uhpawng a gaw sharawt hpung malawm byin wa sai re.



English : The Drukgyal Dzong is a ruined fortress and Buddhist monastery in the upper part of the Paro District (in Phondey Village).

Jingpho : Drukgyal Dzong gaw hten mat sai numhkap dap ba hte Paro ginwang a ntsa daw kaw na Budha hpungki jawng gaw (Phondey mare kaw) re nga ai.



English : It is said that in 1649, Zhabdrung Ngawang Namgyel created the fortress to commemorate his victory against the Tibetan-Mongol forces.

Jingpho : Dai gaw shaning 1649 hta, Zhabdrung Ngawang Namgyel gaw Tibentan-Mongol ni hpe dang wa ai hpe bai myit dum na matu dai dap hpe galaw wa ai re.



English : In 1951, a fire caused for only some of the relics of the Drukgyal Dzong to remain, such as the image of Zhabdrung Ngawang Namgyal.

Jingpho : Shaning 1951 kaw gaw, wan gaw Drukgyal Dzong a sali wunli nkau myi sha, Zhabdrung Ngawang Namgyal a sumla jawn re ai ni hpe sha ngam mat hkra galaw lai wa sai.



English : After the fire, the fortress was preserved and protected, remaining to be one of Bhutan´s most sensational attractions.

Jingpho : Wan hkru katut ai hpang dai ninghkap dap ba hpe Bhutan a labau shang ai myit agang shara langai rai wa hkra atsawm sha kyem zing makawp maga da ma ai.



English : During the 18th century Cambodia found itself squeezed between two powerful neighbors, Thailand and Vietnam.

Jingpho : 18th century hta Cambodia gaw mungdan kaba lahkang Thailand hte Vietnam lapran kaw na shi hkrai shapru wa ai.



English : The Thais invaded Cambodia several times in the 18th century and in 1772 they destroyed Phnom Phen.

Jingpho : Thai masha ni gaw tsa ban 18 hta Cambodia mungdan hpe hpyen n-gun hte grai lang shang gasat wa sai, 1772 ning hta Phnom Phen hpe jahten kau ma sai.



English : In the last years of the 18th century the Vietnamese also invaded Cambodia.

Jingpho : Tsa ban 18 jahtum na shaning ni hta Vietnam gaw Cambodia de hpyen n-gun hte shang gasat ai.



English : Eighteen percent of Venezuelans are unemployed, and most of those who are employed work in the informal economy.

Jingpho : Venezuelan a tsa lam shadang shi matsat gaw bungli nnga ma ai, dai kaw na malawng gaw tara nshang ai bungli dabang hkan bungli shang ma ai.



English : Two thirds of Venezuelans who work do so in the service sector, nearly a quarter work in industry and a fifth work in agriculture.

Jingpho : Venezuela masha yawng kaw na law malawng gaw lajang ya ai bungli hta galaw ma ai, nkau mi gaw rai ni shapraw ai kaw galaw ma ai ngut nna kaang hkup gaw hkai lau hkai sha bungli hta galaw ma ai.



English : An important industry for Venezuelans is oil, where the country is a net exporter, even though only one percent work in the oil industry.

Jingpho : Venezuela masha ni a ahkyak ai jak rung langai gaw sau shapraw ai re, sau jak rung gaw tsa lam shadang langai sha nga tim mungdan jashang gunrai ni hta na grau ai mungdan shapraw gunrai re.



English : Early in the nation´s independence, Singapore Botanic Gardens´ expertise helped to transform the island into a tropical Garden City.

Jingpho : Mungdan shang lawt lu ai a shawng daw de, Singapore hpun kawa hpaji hte seng ai nam pan sun a kungkyang ai ni gaw dai zinlawng hpe kahtet ai nam pan sun mare de galai shai lu wa hkra garum ya lai wa sai re.



English : In 1981, Vanda Miss Joaquim, an orchid hybrid, was chosen as the nation´s national flower.

Jingpho : Shaning 1981 hta Vanda Miss Joaquim, hpan kayau wa madai pan hpe mungdan a myu sha nam pan hku lata masat da sai.



English : Every year around October nearly 1.5 million herbivores travel towards the southern plains, crossing the Mara River, from the northern hills for the rains.

Jingpho : Hpun lap sha dusat wan 1.5 ram gaw shaning shagu marang ra ai majaw dingdung kawng mayan kaw na Mara Hka nu lai di nna dingda pa layang de hkawm sa ma ai.



English : And then back to the north through the west, once again crossing the Mara river, after the rains in around April.

Jingpho : Dai hpang sinna maga hpe laidi nna dingdung maga bai wa ai shaloi, kalang bai Mara hka nu hpe shata man mali shata hkan na marang tawng ai hpang bai rap lai ra na re.



[Day19]

English : The Serengeti region contains the Serengeti National Park, the Ngorongoro Conservation Area and Maswa Game Reserve in Tanzania and the Maasai Mara National Reserve in Kenya.

Jingpho : Serengeti ginwang kaw Tanzania na Maswa Ginsup Ginra, Ngorongoro Gawn hkang Ginra hte Seregeti Myusha Nampan sun hte Kenya kaw Maasai Mara Myusha Ginra ni lawm ai.



English : Learning to create interactive media requires conventional and traditional skills, as well as tools mastered in interactive classes (storyboarding, audio and video editing, story telling, etc.)

Jingpho : Hti htang akyu jaw ai shi ga dap hpe shalat shapraw na matu hka ja la ai lam hta htung lai hkan ai hte htung hking hte seng ai hpaji kunglet ai lam, hti htang akyu jaw ai lam hte seng ai jawng gawk kata na hkingrai ni hpe kung kyang ai lam (sumla ni hte seng ai lam hpe zinlum ai lam, nsen hte sumla hkrung hpe jep shagrin ai lam hte mau mwi tsun ai lam) ni hpe ra ahkyak nga ai.



English : Interactive design requires that you re-assess your assumptions about media production and learn to think in a non-linear ways.

Jingpho : Nang media shapraw ai lam hpe nang maram masam da ai lam hpe nang bai jep maram na hte dingyang lam hku nre ai baw myit na matu kahti galai shalat maka gaw ra nga ai.



English : Interactive design requires that components of a project connect to each other, but also make sense as a separate entity.

Jingpho : Hti htang akyu jaw ai shalat maka ni gaw masing ni hpe langai hte langai matut mahkai na matu dawchyen ni ra nga ai raitimung garan ai hku kri namta ni zawn mung akyu pru nga ai.



English : The disadvantage of zoom lenses is that the focal complexity and number of lens elements required to achieve a range of focal lengths is much greater than for prime lenses.

Jingpho : Sumla ni hkra, tsan hkra galaw ya ai jan nhpai ni a nkaja ai akyu gaw maju jung yak ai lam, jan nhpai law law ra ai lam ni rai nga ai.



English : This is becoming less of an issue as lens manufacturers achieve higher standards in lens production.

Jingpho : Man balu galaw ai lam hta awngdan tsaw ai hte maren dai kaw manghkang ni yawm wa ai.



English : This has allowed zoom lenses to produce pictures of a quality comparable to that achieved by lenses with fixed focal length.

Jingpho : Ndai gaw ka´ang galu masat da ai pat nhpai hte rau ningja rawng shadawn la mai ai sumla ni hpe shapraw lu na matu zoom pat nhpai ni bang da ai.



English : Another disadvantage of zoom lenses is that the maximum aperture (the speed) of the lens is usually lower.

Jingpho : Laga grau kaba mai ai rai na nkaja ai lam gaw kaba dik (lawan) ai rai gaw nkaja ai re.



English : This makes inexpensive zoom lenses hard to use in low-light conditions without a flash.

Jingpho : Ndai lam ni gaw manu hkyem sa ai sumla ni tsan galaw ai pat ni hpe nsin shau ai masa hta kemara kaprip wan nlawm ai sha lang na matu yak shangun ai re.



English : One of the most common problems when trying to convert a movie to DVD format is the overscan.

Jingpho : Sumla hkrung langai hpe DVD hkrang de galai na matu shakut ai shaloi, law malawng madung re ai manghkang langai mi gaw, kompyuta hte sumla dem shakap shalai mat ai lam rai nga ai.



English : Most televisions are made in a way to please the general public.

Jingpho : TV lamang law malawng gaw yu maya masha ni hpe shapyaw na matu sha lajang da ai.



English : For that reason, everything you see on the TV had the borders cut, top, bottom and sides.

Jingpho : Dai madi madun ai a matu, nang TV kaw mu ai lam yawng gaw shi shingwang kata rep, lahta, npu, maga ga de ni sha re.



English : This is made to ensure that the image covers the whole screen. That is called overscan.

Jingpho : Pat man ting hta dai sumla atsawm mu na matu ndai hpe shateng galaw da ai. Dai hpe scan lai ai nga ma ai.



English : Unfortunately, when you make a DVD, it´s borders will most likely be cut too, and if the video had subtitles too close to the bottom, they won´t be fully shown.

Jingpho : Gam nkaja ai hku, nang DVD galaw ai shaloi, shi a makau ndung ni hpe di kau na zawn re nga ai hte lama na sumla hkrung kaw laika madun ai shaloi npu de grai kap taw nna shanhte hpe yawng nmai madun na ra ai.



English : The traditional medieval castle has long inspired the imagination, conjuring up images of jousts, banquets and Arthurian chivalry.

Jingpho : Htung hking hte seng ai ka-ang prat na lang gyi ni kaw myit n-gun lu na myit nshat, marai lahkawng gumra jawn let gasat hkat ai, hkik hkam ai lu sha lamang ni hte Hkaw Hkam Arthur a share shagan ai lam hpe shingran pra mu lu hkra galaw da ai lam ni law law nga nga ai.



English : Even standing amidst thousand year-old ruins it is easy to bring to mind the sounds and smells of battles long gone, to almost hear the clatter of hooves on the cobbles and to smell the fear rising from the dungeon pits.

Jingpho : Moi shaning hking hku kaw na chyahten re ni lapran kaw tsap taw yang moi na hpyen kasat wa ai ntsen hte shingran ni hpe bai lu na re, nlung lam kaw lam hkawm ai zawn ntsen ni ngut nna ga hku kaw na pru wa ai shingran zawn re ni pi lu wa na daram re.



English : But is our imagination based on reality? Why were castles built in the first place? How were they designed and built?

Jingpho : Raitim, anhte a myit ai lam ni gaw ta tut mabyin hta mahta ai re kun? Langchyi ni hpe hpa rai nambat langai shara hta gaw gap lai wa ai kun? Shanhte gara hku shalat maka ni galaw nna gaw gap ma ai kun?



English : Typical for the period, Kirby Muxloe Castle is more of a fortified house than a true castle.

Jingpho : Kaja aten hta, Kirby Muxloe Castle gaw castle majing ni hta pi grau hkrak ai re.



English : Its large glazed windows and thin walls would not have been able to resist a determined attack for long.

Jingpho : Dai a kaba ai pat hku hte hpa ai bunghku gaw atsawm myit shatawng gasat ai hpe na na hkam jan lu na nre.



English : In the 1480s, when its construction was begun by Lord Hastings, the country was relatively peaceful and defense was only required against small bands of roving marauders.

Jingpho : 1480 ning hta, ndai gaw sharawt lam hpe Lord Hastings wa e woi galaw hpang wa ai shaloi gaw ndai mungdan kaw gaw simsa lam nga wa nna shim lum lam a matu gaw ajawt hkawm nna sa hkawm ai masha uhpung kaji ni hpe dinghkap gasat ra lai wa ai re.



English : The balance of power was a system in which European nations sought to maintain the national sovereignty of all European states.

Jingpho : Daru magam rap ra lam ngu ai gaw Uropa mungdan ni yawng a awmdawm daru magam lu na matu jai lang ai lai ladat rai nga ai.



English : The concept was that all European nations had to seek to prevent one nation from becoming powerful, and thus national governments often changed their alliances in order to maintain the balance.

Jingpho : Ndai lai ladat a ningmu gaw Uropa mungdan yawng hta na mungdan langai ngai n-gun ja, shingkang shingwang lu wa na hpe tau hkrau makawp maga nhtawm, mungdan Asuya ni hku nna yawng rap rap ra ra byin tai na matu tinang mungdan a jinghku mungdan hpe loi hkring hkring galai na hku rai nga ai.



English : The War of Spanish Succession marked the first war whose central issue was the balance of power.

Jingpho : Spain a Majan dang hkring htawng dagraw ai lam gaw shawng nna majan hta gin jaw a masing re ai ahkang aya shingdaw shangang ai lam hpe masat da sai.



English : This marked an important change, as European powers would no longer have the pretext of being religious wars. Thus, the Thirty Years´ War would be the last war to be labeled a religious war.

Jingpho : European ngun ni gaw dai makam masham majan a nkaja ai lam ni nga ai zawn dai gaw ahkyak ai langai rai wa sai. Dai majaw, shaning sumshi majan gaw makam masham majan a hpang chyhtum rai wa sai re.



English : The temple of Artemis at Ephesus was destroyed on July 21, 356 BCE in an act of arson committed by Herostratus.

Jingpho : Ephesus kaw na Artemis nawku jawng gaw shata ma hkru 21 ya, 356 BCE hta Herostratus e galaw shut hpyit lai wa ai wan nat ai amu kaw jahten jaza hkrum lai wa sai re.



[Day20]

English : According to the story, his motivation was fame at any cost. The Ephesians, outraged, announced that Herostratus´ name never be recorded.

Jingpho : Dai mau mwi hku tsun ga nga yang, shi myit rawt ai lam gaw kaja nan mying gumhkawng lai wa sai. Ephesians gaw maroi nni ai hte Herostratus ngu ai mying hpe galoi nna yu ai nga ndau dat ai.



English : The Greek historian Strabo later noted the name, which is how we know today. The temple was destroyed on the same night that Alexander the Great was born.

Jingpho : Greek labau ka sara Strabo gaw hpang e mying ni hpe matsing da lai wa sai, dai gaw ndai prat hta anhte gara hku na chye la lu lam rai nga ai. Nawku jawng gaw Alexender the Great shangai ai shana kaw sha jahten shabyak kau ai hkrum lai wa sai.



English : Alexander, as king, offered to pay to rebuild the temple, but his offer was denied. Later, after Alexander died, the temple was rebuilt in 323 BCE.

Jingpho : Alexander gaw hkawhkam langai hku na nawku htingnu gaw gap na ga gumhpraw jaw na matu tsun ai raitimung shi tsun ai ni hpe ningdang kau ya ma ai. Dai hpang, Alexander si mat ai hpang, shaning 323 BCE kaw nawku htingnu hpe bai gaw gap lai wa sai re.



English : Make sure your hand is as relaxed as possible while still hitting all the notes correctly - also try not to make much extraneous motion with your fingers.

Jingpho : Nang na lata hpe yungwi nsi note ni yawng hpe jaw hkra dum ai shaloi mai byin ai daram shayawm da na matu sadi u. bai nna nang na lata layung ni hpe tingtawk nseng n-ang ai hkam sha lam ni nlaw na matu mung shakut u.



English : This way, you will tire yourself out as little as possible. Remember there´s no need to hit the keys with a lot of force for extra volume like on the piano.

Jingpho : Ndai ladat gaw, na hkum nang gau ngwi gau gwi hki ba shangun na re. Piano kaw nsen shaja na matu ja ja dip ra ai zawn gaw Jaw hpe n-gun law law hte ndip ra ai hpe dum u.



English : On the accordion, to get extra volume, you use the bellows with more pressure or speed.

Jingpho : Accordion madum sumpyi hta nsen shaja na matu bellow ni hpe n-gun grau shadat nna (sh) grau lawan ai hku pat let dum ra ai.



English : Mysticism is the pursuit of communion with, identity with, or conscious awareness of an ultimate reality, divinity, spiritual truth, or God.

Jingpho : Wenyi masa gaw poi daw sha ai lam hkan galaw ai, teng sha Karai a hpung shingkang, wenyi lam ni hpe ta tut hkan sa ai lam rai nga ai.



English : The believer seeks a direct experience, intuition, or insight into divine reality/the deity or dieties.

Jingpho : Kam sham ai ni gaw Nat (sh) nat shayi ni a mau na zawn re ai shingra tara ni hpe tatuk hkrum kadut na matu, chye chyang ai lam lu na matu (sh) myithtoi nyan lu na matu sawk tam ma ai.



English : Followers pursue certain ways of living, or practices that are intended to nurture those experiences.

Jingpho : Nampan ni gaw lai nli re ai kan bau lam hpe hkan shachyut ai (sh) shaman ai a madung gaw dai mahkrun madup ni hpe bau maka na matu re.



English : Mysticism can be distinguished from other forms of religious belief and worship by its emphasis on the direct personal experience of a unique state of consciousness, particularly those of a peaceful, insightful, blissful, or even ecstatic character.

Jingpho : Wenyi masa hpe gaw laga nawku htung hte seng ai makam hpan ni hte laklai re ai mabyin masa hpe dingtawk re ai tingkyen mahkrum madup a machye machyang hte alak myi re nna ngwi pyaw sim sa ai, myi htoi nyan lu ai lam, grai kabu pyaw ai lam kajawng kaja atsam n-gun lu wa ai laklai kumla zawn pyi re ai ni hpe nawku daw jau ai lam hpan ni kaw na mai garan ginghka la mai nga ai.



English : Sikhism is a religion from the Indian sub-continent. It originated in the Punjab region during the 15th century from a sectarian split within the Hindu tradition.

Jingpho : Sikhs htung gaw Kala dan daw na makam masham langai re. Dai gaw tsa ban 15th laman Hindu htung hking kata uhpung garan mat ai kaw na Punjab ginra kaw na madung pru wa ai re.



English : Sikhs consider their faith to be a separate religion from Hinduism though they acknowledge its Hindu roots and traditions.

Jingpho : Sikhs gaw Hindu makam hkring htawng hpe hkam la da tim Hindu htung hking kaw na nbung ai makam masham hpung langai ngu sa ai.



English : Sikhs call their religion Gurmat, which is Punjabi for ¨way of the guru¨. The guru is a fundamental aspect of all Indian religions but in Sikhism has taken on an importance that forms the core of Sikh beliefs.

Jingpho : Sikhs ni gaw shanhte a nawku hpung hpe Punjabi na ¨hpung sara ni a lam¨ re nga ai Gurmat ngu shaga tsun ma ai. Hindu, Sikh hung sara ni gaw India nawku hpung ni yawng a rudi npawt dawsang rai nga ai raitimung Sikh nawku hpung kaw gaw Sikh makam masham a grai ahkyak ai hkrang kumla pru na matu la kau ai rai ma ai.



English : The religion was founded in the 15th century by Guru Nanak (1469–1539). There followed in succession a further nine gurus.

Jingpho : Dai nawku htung hpe Guru Nanak (1469-1539) hku na tsaban 15th hta mu tam wa ai. Dai hpang sikt hpung sara jahku mung awng dang ai hpang bai hkan nang wa ma ai.



English : However, in June 1956, Krushchev´s promises were put to the test when riots in Poland, where workers were protesting against food shortages and wage cuts, turned into a general protest against Communism.

Jingpho : 1956 Jun shata hta, Krushchev a ga sadi ni gaw Poland hta kasu kabrawng byin ai ten tsun ai galaw ai kun ngu hpe la yu ra ai ten re wa sai. Dai lam gaw bungli galaw ai ni gaw lusha taw wa ai ten, bungli shabrai njaw ai ten, Kummyunit lailen hpe ninghkap ai de gale wa ai ten re.



English : Although in the end, Krushchev sent in tanks to restore order, he did give way to some economic demands and agreed to appoint the popular Wladyslaw Gomulka as the new prime minister.

Jingpho : Kaning raitim, hpang jahtum hta gaw Krushchev mung arawng aya bai la na matu tank mawdaw ni sa dat ai. Sut masa hte seng ai hpyi shawn lam ni hpe jaw ya nna, mying kaba nga ai Wladyslaw Gomulka hpe mung hkringmang daju nnan hku lit ap ya na matu hkap la sai.



English : The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilisation in the northwest Indian subcontinent encompassing most of modern-day Pakistan and some regions in northwest India and northeast Afghanistan.

Jingpho : ¨Indus Valley Civilization¨ gaw sinna dingdung Kala dan daw chyen, ya prat na Pakistan mundan hte sinna dingdung Kala buga nkau mi hte sinpraw dingdung Afghanistan ni gaw magri prat a shinggyim gan ga ai shara ni byin lai wa sai.



English : The civilisation flourished in the basins of the Indus River wherefore it derives its name.

Jingpho : Indus River hka mayan kaw na rawt jat kalu kaba wa ai amyu ni kaw na dai mying hpe la da ai re.



English : Although some scholars speculate that since the civilisation also existed in the basins of the now dried up Sarasvati River, it should be aptly called the Indus-Sarasvati Civilization, while some call it the Harappan Civilization after Harappa, the first of its sites to be excavated in the 1920s.

Jingpho : Hpaji ninghkrin ni gaw ya hkraw hkrun mat sai Sarasvasti hka nu a hkam wam hkan kaw mung shinggyim hpawng nga lai wa sai majaw dai shara hpe, masha ni Harappa hpe yu nna Harappan shinggyim gan ga lai wa sai shara ngu shaga ma tim, grau na htap htuk hkra Indus-Sarasvativ masha nga pra rawt majan lai wa sai shara ngu shaga na hku tak maram yu ai raitim, 1920 ning hkan gaw shi a htingra hpe htu shaw kau ma sai.



English : The militaristic nature of the Roman empire aided in the development of medical advances.

Jingpho : Roman hkaw seng a hpyen kasat ai ladaw masa gaw tsi hpaji rawt jat wa na matu yaw shada wa ai re.



English : Doctors began to be recruited by Emperor Augustus and even formed the first Roman Medical Corps for use in the aftermath of battles.

Jingpho : Hkawseng magam Augustus gaw tsi du ni hpe lahkawn hpang nna majang ngut ai hpang matut jai lang na matu shawng na Roma Tsi Hpung hpe mung hpaw ninghtan da ai.



English : Surgeons had knowledge of various sedatives including morphine from extracts of poppy seeds and scopolamine from herbane seeds.

Jingpho : Ga lajang tsi du ni gaw kani tum na shaw da ai morphine hte numru tsi na scopolamine ni lawm ai myit zim tsi amyu myu shapraw la ai hpaji ni hpe chye ma ai.



English : They became proficient at amputation to save patients from gangrene as well as tourniquets and arterial clamps to stem blood flow.

Jingpho : Shanhte gaw hkum kaw na sai nhkawm ai shara ni hpe di kau na tsi ai lam ni hta grai ram wa ai ngut nna sai ni hpe lakawn ai ngut nna sai pat ai ni hpe yen nna lu hkawm hkra galaw ma ai.



English : Over multiple centuries, the Roman empire led to great gains in the field of medicine and formed much of the knowledge we know today.

Jingpho : Mungdan law law hta, Roman mungdan gaw tsi hpaji hte ya prat lang ai hpaji law law ni hta shawng hpang wa ai re.



English : Pureland origami is origami with the restriction that only one fold may be done at a time, more complex folds like reverse folds are not allowed, and all folds have straightforward locations.

Jingpho : Pureland origami ngu ai gaw masat da ai ripkawp ni lawm ai rai nna kapum hkang kalang sha mai lawm nna grau shuk ai kapum hkang ni gaw nmai galaw ai.



[Day21]

English : It was developed by John Smith in the 1970s to help inexperienced folders or those with limited motor skills.

Jingpho : Dai hpe sengke jawn ai ni dai ram nau nchye jawn ai ni hpe karum na matu John Smith gaw 1970 hta gin shalat da ai re.



English : Children develop an awareness of race and racial stereotypes quite young and these racial stereotypes affect behavior.

Jingpho : Mani gaw masha amyu ni a latat htee hkrang ni hpe kaji ai kaw na chye na ai lam grau rawt jat wa ai.



English : For instance, children who identify with a racial minority that is stereotyped as not doing well in school tend to not do well in school once they learn about the stereotype associated with their race.

Jingpho : Lama na, myu kaji kaw na ma ni gaw jawng kaw nshakut ai gaw shanhte a myu kaji a ladat a ayang galaw ai lam hte sa bung taw ai re.



English : MySpace is the third most popular website used in the United States and has 54 million profiles currently.

Jingpho : MySpace gaw United States kaw nambat masum mying kaba dik website re nna ya yang pi masha wan 54 lang taw ma ai.



English : These websites have gotten a lot of attention, especially in the education setting.

Jingpho : Dai website hpe masha grai ra ma ai, hpaji tam ai ni grau re.



English : There are positive aspects to these websites, which include, being able to easily setup a class page which can include blogs, videos, photos, and other features.

Jingpho : Blog, sumla hkrung, sumla hte kaga ni lawm ai hpe a loi sha mai galaw la ai internet sharin laika man zawn re ndai website ni hpe kaja ai hku mu mada ai ni ma nga ai.



English : This page can easily be accessed by providing just one web address, which makes it easy to remember and easy to type in for students who may have trouble using the keyboard or with spelling.

Jingpho : Dai laika man de web shara mying langai bang nna aloi sha mai shang ai, dai gaw laika nchye ka ma jawng ma ni na matu shaloi sha mai ka na hte chye matsing na matu galaw da ai re.



English : It can be customized to make it easy to read and also with as much or little color as desired.

Jingpho : Dai hpe lu hti na matu rai ai hku mai galaw ai ngut nna hkrang law law dai nrai kachyi sha rai ai hku mai galaw ai.



English : Attention Deficit Disorder ¨is a neurological syndrome whose classic defining triad of symptoms including impulsivity, distractibility, and hyperactivity or excess energy¨.

Jingpho : Attention Deficit Disorder gaw ¨maju lasa hte seng ai ana kumla re dai gaw du ladi re ai lam, myit maju galai ai lam hte n-gun shajan shalai re ai zawn re ana kumla ni hpe majaw byin shangun ai.¨



English : It is not a learning disability, it is a learning disorder; it ¨affects 3 to 5 percent of all children, perhaps as many as 2 million American children¨.

Jingpho : Dai gaw nmai sharin ai nre, dai gaw nhti nhtang byin ai re; dai gaw ma ni hta 3 kaw na 5 percent daram byin ai re, American ma ni sen 2 daram nga na re.



English : Children with ADD have a hard time focusing on things like school work, but they can concentrate on things they enjoy doing like playing games or watching their favorite cartoons or writing sentences without punctuation.

Jingpho : ADD rau re ai ma ni gaw jawng laika zawn re ai arai ni kaw myit maju jung na matu yak hkak ai aten ni nga ai rai timung shanhte gaw ginsup hpan ginsup ai lam shanhte a ra dik ai cartoon sumla hkrung ni yu ai lam ga hkring, ga sa bang ai lam n-nga ai sha ga yan ni hpe ka ai lam zawn re ai shanhte galaw pyaw dum ai arai ni hpe gaw myit maju lu jung ma ai re.



English : These children tend to get into a lot of trouble, because they ¨engage in risky behaviors, get into fights, and challenge authority¨ in order to stimulate their brain, since their brain can not be stimulated by normal methods.

Jingpho : Dai ma ni a bawnu gaw shawoi na ladat hku sharawng shara nnga ai kaw na, shanhte bawnu bungli galaw na matu dai ma ni gaw manghkang grai galaw wa na masa nga ai, hpa majaw nga yang shanhte gaw ¨hkrit ra ai arawn alai galaw hpang ai, ga law hkat ai hte up hkang salang ni hpe dangrang hkat ai¨.



English : ADD affects relationships with other peers because other children can not understand why they act the way that they do or why they spell they way they do or that their maturity level is different.

Jingpho : ADD gaw laga sak rum ni rau kanawn mazum ai lam hpe akyu jaw ya nga ai hpa majaw nga yang laga ma ni gaw shanhte galaw ai lam hpe hpa majaw galaw ai hpa majaw shanhte ni shachyaw ai hku laika si ni hpe shachyaw ai ngu ai lam ni hpe nlu chye na ma ai shanhte a myit kung ai lam gaw nbung ai majaw rai na re.



English : As the ability to obtain knowledge and to learn changed in such a way as mentioned above the base rate at which knowledge was obtained changed.

Jingpho : Machye machyang hkam la lu na hte galai shai ai lam hkaja lu na atsam gaw galai shai hkaja la chye ai hpaji npawt hpe lahta kaw htawng madun da sai zawn sha re.



English : The approach to obtaining information was different. No longer did pressure reside within individual recall, but the ability to recall text became more of a focus.

Jingpho : Shiga la na matu galaw ai lam gaw shai ai re. bai shaga ai hta dai kaw nga ai ni hpe myit npyaw hpa nga ai, raitim dai shaga ai laika gaw yang myit shang sha ai rai wa ai.



English : In essence, the Renaissance made a significant change in the approach to learning and the dissemination of knowledge.

Jingpho : Madung tsun ga nga yang, Renaissance ngu ai Greek hpaji myit sawn ai lam gaw sharin hkaja na matu shani sa wa ai ladat hte hpaji byeng nya hpe chyam bra hkra garan kachyan ai lam hta kaba ai dandawng ai galai shai ai lam hpe galaw ya wa sai.



English : Unlike other primates, hominids no longer use their hands in locomotion or bearing weight or swinging through the trees.

Jingpho : Laga masha ni zawn nre, hominids ni gaw shara htawt ai dai nrai lai ai hpe bai ai dai nrai hpun lung ai hta shanhte lata hpe nlang mat ai.



English : The chimpanzee´s hand and foot are similar in size and length, reflecting the hand´s use for bearing weight in knuckle walking.

Jingpho : Chimpanzee a lata hte lagaw ni gaw maren sha re ngut nna, lamhkawm ai ni lata galaw ai ni yawng gaw bung ai re.



English : The human hand is shorter than the foot, with straighter phalanges.

Jingpho : Shinggyim masha a lata gaw lagaw hta grau kadun ai. Lagaw nra gaw grau galu ai majaw re.



English : Fossil hand bones two million to three million years old reveal this shift in specialization of the hand from locomotion to manipulation.

Jingpho : Shaning sen lahkang matsum daram nga ai dai nlung bum hpe htawt ai ka na manu ginsup ai de tsit wa ai hpe madun wa ai.



English : Some people believe that experiencing many artificially induced lucid dreams often enough can be very exhausting.

Jingpho : Nkau masha ni kam sham ai lam gaw masha ta hte galaw nna kaja ai zawn re hkra shamau ya ai yupmang ni law law wa hpe hkrum katut ai lam gaw grai hkyi ba shangun chye ai.



English : The main reason for this phenomenon is the result of the lucid dreams expanding the length of time between REM states.

Jingpho : Ndai mabyin masa a madung madi madun ai lam gaw REM ginra ni lapran dan leng ai yupmang ni aten nau la wa ai mahtai a majaw re.



English : With fewer REMs per night, this state in which you experience actual sleep and your body recovers becomes infrequent enough to become a problem.

Jingpho : Lana mi REMs nkau mi hte rau, ndai mungdaw hta nang gaw teng sha yup pyaw ai ngu ai lam, manghkang langai byin na matu aloi hte nlu ai hpa hparan kau lu ai mahkrum madup lu mai ai.



English : This is just as exhausting as if you were to wake up every twenty or thirty minutes and watch TV.

Jingpho : Nang yup rawt ai hte minit hkun (sh) sumshi darm TV yu ai rai yang dai lam gaw pu ba shangun ai lam re.



English : The effect is dependent on how often your brain attempts to lucidly dream per night.

Jingpho : Dai akyu ara gaw na bawnu lana mi hta jahkring hkring dan dan leng leng re nna gara hku yup mang mu ai hta mahta nga ai.



[Day22]

English : Things did not go well for the Italians in North Africa almost from the start. Within a week of Italy´s declaration of war on June 10, 1940, the British 11th Hussars had seized Fort Capuzzo in Libya.

Jingpho : Italy na a dingda Africa kaw bungli galaw ai nnan hta nloi ai. Shaning 1940 shata man hku 10 ya hta gasat na hpe shana ai shaloi, British ni a 11th Hussars gaw Libya kaw na Fort Capuzzo hpe dang la kau ai.



English : In an ambush east of Bardia, the British captured the Italian Tenth Army´s Engineer-in-Chief, General Lastucci.

Jingpho : Bardia sinpraw maga kaw na makoi hkap ai shara langai hta, Itali myu sha nambat shi hpyen dap a jak ninghkring Du daju wa Lastucci hpe Inglik ni rim da ma ai.



English : On June 28, Marshal Italo Balbo, the Governor-General of Libya and apparent heir to Mussolini, was killed by friendly fire while landing in Tobruk.

Jingpho : Shata man hkru 28 ya hta, Libya a Munggyi Du daju, Marshal Italo Balbo hte Mussolini a hkring htawng dagraw na wa gaw Tobruk de pyenli pyen yu wa ai ten tinang hpyen dap na lak nak hte si mat wa sai.



English : The modern sport of fencing is played at many levels, from students learning at a university to professional and Olympic competition.

Jingpho : Zauhkyen a prat dep ginsup hpan hpe gaw, jawng ma ni dakkasu kaw sharin la ai kaw na shabrai sha ai madang hte Olympic shingjawng poi ni kaw du hkra madang grai law ni hta ginsup nga ai re.



English : The sport is primarily played in a duel format, one fencer dueling another.

Jingpho : Zauhkyen ginsup ai madung gaw langai hte langai gasat shingjawng ai hpan re.



English : Golf is a game in which players use clubs to hit balls into holes.

Jingpho : Gawp ginsup ai hta ginsup ai ni gaw gayat ai shingna hpe lang nna bawlung hpe hku kata de shang hkra gayat ra ai.



English : Eighteen holes are played during a regular round, with players usually starting on the first hole on the course and finishing on the eighteenth.

Jingpho : Ginsup masha ni gaw ningshawng hku hta hpang nna ayan na hku sha shi matsat hta shangut ai hte hku shi matsat bang ginsup ai gaw ayan na shara shagu ginsup ai lam re.



English : The player who takes the fewest strokes, or swings of the club, to complete the course wins.

Jingpho : Kayat masat shau htum lu ai ginsup masha kalap hpung a galai shai ai lam gaw sharin hpawng hpe awng dang hkra shangut shakre na matu re.



English : The game is played on grass, and the grass around the hole is mown shorter and called the green.

Jingpho : Ndai game hpe tsingdu hta ginsup ai, hku grup yin na dai tsingdu pa ni hpe kadun dun re tsing shawt ai hte dai hpe atsit ngu tsun ai.



English : Perhaps the most common type of tourism is what most people associate with traveling: Recreation tourism.

Jingpho : Mungkan buhkawng hpan law malawng gaw mash ni buhkawng ai hte seng nna ginrun dik htum ai lam ni re na re. Munkan buhkawm ai lam hpe n-nan bai galaw shapraw ai lam.



English : This is when people go to a place that is very different from their regular day-to-day life to relax and have fun.

Jingpho : Ndai ten gaw shinggyim masha ni shanhte shani shagu hkawm sa taw ai lam kaw na hkring sa (sh) ban sa la nna pyaw chyai na matu nbung ai shara de sa ma ai.



English : Beaches, theme parks and camp grounds are often the most common places frequented by recreational tourists.

Jingpho : Panglai hka kau ni, nampan sun ni hte dap dabang lamu ga ni gaw kalang marang ban sa ai lam hpe madun da ai mungkan hkawm sa masha ni jahkring hkring sa ai ginra re.



English : If the objective of one's visit to a particular place is to get to know its history and culture then this type of tourism is known as cultural tourism.

Jingpho : Lama dai masha a hkawm sa ai yaw shada lam gaw labau hte htunghking hpe chye mayu ai majaw shara mi de hkawm sa ai rai yang dai hkawm sa ai lam gaw htunghking hte seng ai bu hkawm bungli magam rai nga ai.



English : Tourists may visit different landmarks of a particular country or they may simply opt to focus on just one area.

Jingpho : Maigan bu hkawm masha ni gaw mungdan langai a nbung ai ginra shagu de sa du hkawm na re (sh) shanhte gaw dai shara langai kaw sha sa du mayu taw nga ma ai.



English : The Colonists, seeing this activity, had also called for reinforcements.

Jingpho : Mung maden je ai ni gaw, ndai bungli hpe yu nna hpyen lahkawn jat na matu ngu mung tsun ma ai re.



English : Troops reinforcing the forward positions included the 1st and 3rd New Hampshire regiments of 200 men, under Colonels John Stark and James Reed (both later became generals).

Jingpho : Hpyen n-gun jat ai hku na Dap jum up yan re ai Yawhan Stark hte James Reed (hpang de lahkawng yan du daju tai wa ma ai) a npu na masha 200 dap dung kaba re ai Nem Hampshire 1 hte 3 lawm ai hpyen hpung ni shawng lam de rawt sa wa ma ai.



English : Stark´s men took positions along the fence on the north end of the Colonist´s position.

Jingpho : Stark a hpyen la ni gaw Mung maden hpyen ni shara la da ai dingdung jahtum maga na nhpan hku shara la bang wa ma ai.



English : When low tide opened a gap along the Mystic River along the northeast of the peninsula, they quickly extended the fence with a short stone wall to the north ending at the water´s edge on a small beach.

Jingpho : Hka hpungrawt nem mat ai a majaw Mystic hka nu kaw na hpang na zundawn a sinpraw dingdung maga du hkra gang hkat mat ai aten hta shanhte gaw nhpan hpe nlung tawng hte galaw da ai shakum hte dingdung maga, panglai hka kau mayan de du hkra lawan ladan matut kau ma ai.



English : Gridley or Stark placed a stake about 100 feet (30 m) in front of the fence and ordered that no one fire until the regulars passed it.

Jingpho : Gridley shing nrai, Stark gaw nhpan a shawng kaw pe 100 (meter 30) daram nga ai hpundung hpe tawn da nna, dinggrin hpyen dap ni n lai dingsa kadai n-gap na matu matsun ai.



English : The American plan relied on launching coordinated attacks from three different directions.

Jingpho : Amerikan masing gaw nbung ai lam mahkrun masum kaw na jawm gasat ai mahkyen lu hpaw ai hta shamyet nga ai.



English : General John Cadwalder would launch a diversionary attack against the British garrison at Bordentown, in order to block off any reinforcements.

Jingpho : Du daju John Cadwalder gaw hpyen n-gun jat ai lam hpe hkum pat jahkring na matu Bordentown na British maren sin dap hpe lam galai gumlang gasat na matu tsun shabra na re.



English : General James Ewing would take 700 militia across the river at Trenton Ferry, seize the bridge over the Assunpink Creek and prevent any enemy troops from escaping.

Jingpho : Du daju James Ewing gaw mung shawa hpyen 700 hpe hka nu a kaga maga e nga ai Trenton Ferry ngu ai shara de woi awn nna, Assunpink Creek hka gai ntsa na mahkrai hpe zing la nhtawm hpyen wa a hpung ni n mai hprawng na matu shingdang na re.



English : The main assault force of 2,400 men would cross the river nine miles north of Trenton, and then split into two groups, one under Greene and one under Sullivan, in order to launch a pre-dawn attack.

Jingpho : Trenton a dingdung maga mile 9 hta nga ai hka nu hpe hpyen n-gun 2400 gaw lai wa nna uhpung lahkawng garan mat ai. Uhpung langai mi gaw Greene ningshawng ai npu hta rai nna langai mi gaw Sullivan a ningshawng ai npu kaw e rai nga ai, shanhte gaw nhtoi htoi jang gasat na matu shajin nga ai.



English : With the change from the quarter to the half mile run, speed becomes of much less importance and endurance becomes an absolute necessity.

Jingpho : Kagat ai lam hpe deng htam mali na htam mi sha re ai kaw na deng chyen mi rai mat ai a majaw, ndai kagat ai lam hta ba lu hkam ai lam gaw chyang shadang hta grau ahkyak mat wa ai.



English : Of course a first-class half-miler, a man who can beat two minutes, must be possessed of a fair amount of speed, but endurance must be cultivated at all hazards.

Jingpho : Rai sa madang tsaw mai daw mi, minit lahkawng hte lu galaw ai masha, gaw grai lawan na re, raitim da hkam ai gaw hkrit ra ai ni yawng hpe yen kau na re.



[Day23]

English : Some cross country running during the winter, combined with gymnasium work for the upper part of the body, is the best preparation for the running season.

Jingpho : Nshung ta laman hkrup ai hku lagat ai nkau mi gaw hkum hkrang lahta de na matu ginsup dum hta bai gayau ginsup ai lam gaw lagat shingjawng numdaw a matu kaja dik ai mahkyen re nga ai.



English : Proper nutritional practices alone cannot generate elite performances, but they can significantly affect young athletes´ overall wellness.

Jingpho : Htap htuk malu masha shaman shakyang ai lam ni sha gaw ningtawn ai hkrang shala ai lam hpe shabyin ya lu ai nre rai timung shanhte gaw asak kaji ai ginsup ninghkrin a guji guyang gaja na lam hpe alak mi re na akyu jaw lu ai re.



English : Maintaining a healthy energy balance, practicing effective hydration habits, and understanding the various aspects of supplementation practices can help athletes improve their performance and increase their enjoyment of the sport.

Jingpho : Hkamja ngun atsam hpe sadi ai, hkum hkrang kaw hka dat law nga matu sadia ai, ngut nna tatup galaw ni hpa atsawm sha chye na ai gaw ginsaup ai ni hpe shanhte na galaw ai lam hpe grau kaja shangu nna galaw ai bungli hpe grau manu shadan wa na re.



English : Middle distance running is a relatively inexpensive sport; however, there are many misconceptions regarding the few pieces of equipment required to participate.

Jingpho : Ka-ang sumtsan wunkat manu nhpu ai hku na ginsup hpan langai re; raitim dai hta e shang lawm na matu hkinghku nkau mi shakap lang ra ai hte seng na chye na shut ai lam ni grai nga ai.



English : Products can be purchased as needed, but most will have little or no real impact on performance.

Jingpho : Gunrai ni hpe ra ai zawn mai htet la mai ai, raitim law malawng gaw kaji mi sha re nna tatut bungli hta dai ram masan nsa ma ai.



English : Athletes may feel that they prefer a product even when it provides no real benefits.

Jingpho : Ginsup ninghkring ni gaw shahte ra yang a myet nlu jaw tim dai gunrai hpe mahtang grau ra ma ai.



English : The atom can be considered to be one of the fundamental building blocks of all matter.

Jingpho : Bawm shingmun gaw hkrang rai yawng mayawng hpe shachyaw ai lam hta npawt madung re ngu sawn la mai nga ai.



English : Its a very complex entity which consists, according to a simplified Bohr model, of a central nucleus orbited by electrons, somewhat similar to planets orbiting the sun - see Figure 1.1.

Jingpho : Ndai gaw grai shuk ai mabyin rai nga nna dai kaw gaw electron ni e shinggrup tawn ai ka-ang nucleus hpe chye na loi hkra galaw da ai Bohr ladat, gintawng ni jan hpe shinggrup nga hte bung ai zawn re ai lam ni mung lawm nga ai. Sumla 1.1 hpe yu u.



English : The nucleus consists of two particles - neutrons and protons.

Jingpho : Nucleus hta neutrons hte protons ngu ai ayun ayaw lahkawng nga ai.



English : Protons have a positive electric charge while neutrons have no charge. The electrons have a negative electric charge.

Jingpho : Neutron ni hta hpa dat la mung nnga ai shaloi proton kaw wan dat nga ai. Electron kaw gaw wan dat yi nga ai.



English : To Check the victim, you must first survey the scene to ensure your safety.

Jingpho : Tsim yam hkrum masha hpe jep yu na matu, nang gaw na shimlum lam hpe shateng lu na matu mabyin hpe shawng jep mada yu ra na re.



English : You need to notice the victim´s position as you approach him or her and any automatic red flags.

Jingpho : Tsinyam hkrum ai wa hpe sa shani ai shaloi shi a shara masa hte shi hkrai shi byin pru wa ai hkrit hpa kumla masat dawnghkawn ni hpe mung sadi ra ai.



English : If you get hurt trying to help, you may only serve to make matters worse.

Jingpho : Lama na nang garum na matu shakut ai shaloi hkala nba hkrum la yang gaw, manghkang hpe sha grau kaba shangun na re.



English : The study found that depression, fear and catastrophising mediated the relationship between pain and disability in lower back pain sufferers.

Jingpho : Myit daw ai lam, hkrit ai lam hte tsin yam ai gaw mashi lawu machyi hkrum ai ni hta daw hten ai hte machyi ai lapran na matut mahkai lam hpe htinggram ya ai nga sawk tam ni hkaja da ma ai.



English : Only the effects of catastrophizing, not depression and fear was conditional of regular weekly structured PA sessions.

Jingpho : Dai manghkang a majaw, myit ba ai ngut nna hkrit ai ni gaw PA hta bat shagu byin ai lam ni re.



English : Those participating in regular activity required more support in terms of negative perception of pain distinguishing the differences of chronic pain and discomfort feel from normal physical movement.

Jingpho : Dai ayan galaw ai lamang ni hpe shang lawm ai lam hpe machyi taw ai ana hte shamu shamawt nmai ai a majaw machyi taw ai lam hpe garan ginghka ai shaloi na machyi ai a ntsa e rawng ai nkaja ai myit a matu madi shadaw ai lam grau ra ahkyak nga ai.



English : Vision, or the ability to see depends on visual system sensory organs or eyes.

Jingpho : Mu ai lam (sh) mu lu ai atsam gaw myit hte mai mu lu ai hkum daw shan ni hta mahta ai.



English : There are many different constructions of eyes, ranging in complexity depending on the requirements of the organism.

Jingpho : Myi hpe gawn lajang ai hta lam amyu myu hku tsi lajang ma ai, de a hkrung kanu ra rawng ai hta hkan nna ayak ahkak lajang ra ai.



English : The different constructions have different capabilities, are sensitive to different wave-lengths and have differing degrees of acuity, also they require different processing to make sense of the input and different numbers to work optimally.

Jingpho : Nbung ai gaw gap ladat ni gaw nbung ai atsam nga ma ai, dai ni gaw nbung ai shadawn shadang ni hte sung de lang ai degree ni nbung ai ma ai, kata de lang ai hpan nbung ai hku shachyaw ai rap ra ai hku galaw na nambat ni mung nbung ai ladat hku lang ma ai.



English : A population is the collection of organisms of a particular species within a given geographic area.

Jingpho : Masha jahpan gaw jaw da ai lamu ga kata na tup hkrak re myu baw hpan a hkrung kanu ni hpe mahkawng da ai re.



English : When all individuals in a population are identical with regard to a particular phenotypic trait they are known as monomorphic.

Jingpho : Masha jahpang na dinghkrai shagu yawng hkra hpe hkrak tup re phenotypic lai nsam hku shabung dat ga nga yang yawng gaw monomorphic hku na chye na ai.



English : When the individuals show several variants of a particular trait they are polymorphic.

Jingpho : Dinghkrai shagu gaw alak mi re lai nsam a shai ai lam grai law hpe madun ai ten, shanhte gaw hkrang amyu myu galai ma ai.



English : Army ant colonies march and nest in different phases as well.

Jingpho : Gagin law law gaw sa wa nna shanhte nga shara galaw dai hta mung grai hkrak wa ma ai.



English : In the nomadic phase, army ants march at night and stop to camp during the day.

Jingpho : Ayan htawt hkawm ai madang hta gaw, gagyin hpyen hpung ni gaw shana hkawm nna shani hkring ma ai.



English : The colony begins a nomadic phase when available food has decreased. During this phase, the colony makes temporary nests that are changed everyday.

Jingpho : Lusha mai lu ai lam yawm wa ai ten mung maden ai gaw ladaw jahkring hkring hta byin wa ai. Ndai ladaw ni hta mung maden ai gaw shani shagu na htawt sit galai taw ai jahkring mi na tsip tsip hpa re nga ai.



[Day24]

English : Each of these nomadic rampages or marches lasts for approximately 17 days.

Jingpho : Ndai hkrup ai de hkawm sa ai lam (sh) yan hkawm ai lam langai ngai gaw ntsa lam nhtoi 17 na ai.



English : What is a cell? The word cell comes from the Latin word ¨cella¨, meaning ¨small room¨, and it was first coined by a microscopist observing the structure of cork.

Jingpho : Cell nga hpa ta? Dai cell nga gaw Latin ga kaw na gawk kasha ngu ai cella kaw na sa wa ai re, dai hpe shawng nnan microscopist hte palin matsun hpe jep yu ai kaw na hpang wa ai re.



English : The cell is the basic unit of all living things, and all organisms are composed of one or more cells.

Jingpho : Cell gaw sak hkrung ai lam yawng hkra hte a npawt re nna hkrung kanu yawng gaw cell langai grai law hte shang lawm gaw da ai re.



English : Cells are so basic and critical to the study of life, in fact, that they are often referred to as ¨the building blocks of life¨.

Jingpho : Cell ni gaw sak hkrung ai hpe hkaja na matu grai nan npawt nhpang re nga ai, grai ahkyak ai, hkrak tsun ga nga yang, ¨asak a gaw gap da ai gawk ni¨ zawn sha dai ni hpe jahkring hkring lakap da ai re.



English : The Nervous System maintains homeostasis by sending nerve impulses through out the body to keep the flow of blood going as well as undisturbed.

Jingpho : Nervous system gaw a-kajawng sha byin wa ai nerve ni hpe sai lam matut bungli galaw na matu homeostaiss hkangzing ai lam hpe galaw ya nga ai.



English : These nerve impulses can be sent so quickly throughout the body which helps keep the body safe from any potential threat.

Jingpho : Ndai myit maju lasa ni gaw hkum hkrang shara shagu de alawan du hkawm ai majaw hkum hkrang kaw byin mai ai hkrit hpa amyu myu kaw na makawp maga ya ai.



English : Tornadoes strike a small area compared to other violent storms, but they can destroy everything in their path.

Jingpho : Bunghpoi laru gaw laga nbung laru ni rau shadawn ga nga yang gaw ginra kachyi myi sha hpe jahten kau ai raitimung shanhte a sa wa ai lam kaw nga ai arung arai hpa hkra hpe gaw jahten kau lu ai re.



English : Tornadoes uproot trees, rip boards from buildings, and fling cars up into the sky. The most violent two percent of tornadoes last more than three hours.

Jingpho : Bunghpoi laru ni gaw hpun ni hpe baw kau ai, nta hpun pyen ni gang je ai hte mawdaw ni hpe lamu de kabai shapyen kau ai. Bunghpoi laru a dawsa ai tsa lam shadang lahkawng gaw hkying hkum masum hta jan nna na ai.



English : These monster storms have winds up to 480 km/h (133 m/s; 300 mph).

Jingpho : Dai grai kaba ai nbung laru hkying hkum mi hta 480 km (sekkan myi hta 133 minit;300 mph) hku bung ahpawt mat ai.



English : Humans have been making and using lenses for magnification for thousands and thousands of years.

Jingpho : Shinggyim masha ni gaw shing hkying kaba kaw na sumla shawawm na matu pat nhpai ni hpe galaw shapraw ai hte jai lang wa ma ai.



English : However, the first true telescopes were made in Europe in the late 16th century.

Jingpho : Raitimung, alat ningshawng jaw ai sumtsan yu myiset gaw lai wa tsa ban 16 hta uropa dan kaw galaw shapraw lai wa sai re.



English : These telescopes used a combination of two lenses to make distant objects appear both nearer and larger.

Jingpho : Ndai sumtsan yu myi set ni gaw tsan ai kaw na arai ni hpe grau ni ai, grau kaba ai hku hpan lahkawng mai mu lu ai pat nhpai lahkawng hte shachyaw nna jai lang lai sai.



English : Greed and selfishness will always be with us and it is the nature of cooperation that when the majority benefit there will always be more to gain in the short term by acting selfishly

Jingpho : Law hpa myit hte tinggyeng myit gaw galoi mung anhte hte arau nga nna ndai gaw masha law malawng wa mi gaw amyat lu wa ai shaloi, aten kadun hta grau nna lu wa hkra galaw na ngu ai tinggyeng myit jasat gaw shingra maka hte seng nna myit hpawm ai lam re nga ai.



English : Hopefully, most people will realise that their long term best option is to work together with others.

Jingpho : Myit mada ai hte sha, masha law malawng gaw shanhte a aten galu kaja dik lata la mai ai gaw kaga ni hte rau bungli galaw na matu re ngu hpe dum hprang na matu re.



English : Many people dream of the day when humans can travel to another star and explore other worlds, some people wonder what´s out there some belive that aliens or other life may live on another plant.

Jingpho : Masha law law wa mi gaw shinggyim masha ni wa kaga shata mung hte kaga mungkan de sa du hkawm chyai lu na nhtoi hpe myit mada shinran nga ma ai rai nna masha nkau mi gaw dai shara de hpa wa mi nga ai kun ngu sumru yu ma ai rai ai, nkau mi kam ai gaw alak mi shai ai hkrung kanu (sh) kaga sak hkrung ai hpan ni wa kaga mungkan kaw nga ai ngu ai lam ni rai nga ai.



English : But, if this ever does happen probably won´t happen for a very long time. The stars are so spread out that there are trillions of miles between stars that are ¨neighbors¨.

Jingpho : Lama na ndai lam ni wa byin wa tim grai na hkra byin taw na nre nga ai. Shagan ni gaw grai dam lada nna ¨htingbu¨ shagan wa hte deng trillions ram tsan hkat ai re.



English : Maybe one day, your great grandchildren will be standing atop an alien world wondering about their ancient ancestors?

Jingpho : Lani mi hta, na kashu gaw mungkan ntsa kaw tap nna moi na ji we ji wa ni hpe mau taw na re kun?



English : Animals are made of many cells. They eat things and digest them inside. Most animals can move.

Jingpho : Dusat ni hpe cell law law hte hpa jang da ai re. Shanhte gaw lusha sha nna kan kata shat rin lam nga ai. Dusat malawng gaw shamu shamawt chye ma ai.



English : Only animals have brains (though not even all animals do; jellyfish, for example, do not have brains).

Jingpho : Dusat ni hta sha bawnu rawng ai (tim dusat ni yawng hta gaw nrawng ai; lama na, panglai baluk hta bawnu nrawng ai).



English : Animals are found all over the earth. They dig in the ground, swim in the oceans, and fly in the sky.

Jingpho : Dusat dumyeng yawng hpe mungkan shara shagu hta mu lu nga ai. Shanhte gaw ga htu nga ai, nammuk dara nga ai hte lamu de pyen hkawm nga ma ai.



English : A cell is the smallest structural and functional unit of a living (things) organism.

Jingpho : Shanhtum langai gaw sak hkrung (arai ni) hkrang kanu langai a kaji htum ai ninghtan gawgap lam hte seng ai hte bungli galaw ai lam hte seng ai hpan re.



English : Cell comes from the Latin word cella which means small room.

Jingpho : Cell ga si gaw Latin ga kaw na sa wa nna de lachyum gaw gawk kaji ngu ai re.



English : If you look at living things under a microscope, you will see that they are made of small squares or balls.

Jingpho : Asak hkrung ai arai ni hpe microscope hte yu yu yang, shanhte hpe man bung lawk kaji ni shing nrai, bawlung kaji ni hte galaw da ai hpe mu lu na re.



English : Robert Hooke, a biologist from England, saw small squares in cork with a microscope.

Jingpho : England mungdan na nsoi hpaji ninghkring Robert Hooke gaw microscope pat nhpai hte yu nna, matsut hta man bung lawk kaji ni hpe mu lu ai.



English : They looked like rooms. He was the first person to observe dead cells

Jingpho : Dai ni hpe yu yang gawk ni zawn san ai. Shi gaw cell chyasi hpe shawng mu hkrup ai wa re.



[Day25]

English : Elements and compounds can move from one state to another and not change.

Jingpho : Element hte compund ni hpe nshai ai sha shara langai hte langai mai htawt ai.



English : Nitrogen as a gas still has the same properties as liquid nitrogen. The liquid state is denser but the molecules are still the same.

Jingpho : Nitrogen gas gaw ntsin nitrogen zawn madang naw nga ai. Ntsin kaw loi htat tim molecule ni gaw maren re.



English : Water is another example. The compound water is made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.

Jingpho : Hka gaw kaga ga shadawn langai re. Hka gahkyin ai lam hpe hydrogen atom lahkawng a lahta hte oxygen aton langai hte galaw da ai.



English : It has the same molecular structure whether it is a gas, liquid, or solid.

Jingpho : Dai gaw dat nsa, ntsin (sh) atawng apa re mat tim de a molecular gaw da hkrang gaw maren sha re.



English : Although its physical state may change, its chemical state remains the same.

Jingpho : De a hkum shan hkrang shai mai timung, dat masa hkrang gaw nshai na re.



English : Time is something that is all around us, and affects everything we do, yet is difficult to understand.

Jingpho : Aten ngu ai gaw anhte yawng a makau grupyin kaw nga ai, bai nna anhte galaw ai yawng mayawng kaw akyu pru ai, rai tim chye na na yak ai.



English : Time has been studied by religious, philosophical, and scientific scholars for thousands of years.

Jingpho : Aten hpe moi shaning hkying hku na makam masham ninghkring, myit mang hpaji ninghkring hte hpungtang hpaji ninghkring ni gaw sharin hkaja wa sai.



English : We experience time as a series of events passing from the future through the present to the past.

Jingpho : Anhte hta matut manoi lam yan byin nga ai zawn sha aten ahkying ni hpe mung htawm hpang kaw na ya ten lai sai ten du hkra hkrum nga ai.



English : Time is also how we compare the duration (length) of events.

Jingpho : Aten ngu ai gaw lamang ni hta kade ram na ai hpe shingdaw maram yu ai hpe ngu mayu ai re.



English : You can mark the passing of time yourself by observing the repetition of a cyclical event. A cyclical event is something that happens again and again regularly.

Jingpho : Nang hku na kahtap mabyin langai kahtap byin ai lam hkaja da ai hku na lai mat wa sai na aten hpe mung ka matsing da mai ai. Kahtap mabyin langai gaw lama ma hpe ayan na lang hte lang byin taw ai re.



English : Computers today are used to manipulate pictures and videos.

Jingpho : Dai ni na kumpyuta ni hpe sumla ni, video ni kung kyang ai hku jum lang na matu jai lang ai.



English : Sophisticated animations can be constructed on computers, and this kind of animation is increasingly being used in television and films.

Jingpho : Prat dep laklai ai animation ladat gaw kompyuta hte galaw shachyaw mai ai baw rai nna, ndai hpe TV hte sumla hkrung ni grau grau jai lang wa ma ai.



English : Music is often recorded using sophisticated computers to process and mix sounds together.

Jingpho : Yungwi hpe ayan na prat dep kompyuta lang nna nsen ni gayau lang na matu nsen rim da ai.



English : For a long time during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, it was believed the first inhabitants of New Zealand were the Maori people, who hunted giant birds called moas.

Jingpho : Tsa ban shi jahku hte hkun laman aten grai na hkra, New Zealand a shawng nga jauman masha ni gaw Maori masha ni re nna shanhte gaw maos ngu ai u kaba ni hpe shatam sha lai wa sai nga na kam lai wa ma ai.



English : The theory then established the idea that the Maori people migrated from Polynesia in a Great Fleet and took New Zealand from the Moriori, establishing an agricultural society.

Jingpho : Maori masha ni Great Fleet a Polynesia kaw na bu htawt wa nna Moriori kaw na New Zealand de hkai nmai hte seng ai uhpung hpe hpaw ning htan ma ai gaw myit ningmu kaw na myit jasat de gaw shachyaw ma ai.



English : However, new evidence suggests that the Moriori were a group of mainland Maori who migrated from New Zealand to the Chatham Islands, developing their own distinctive, peaceful culture.

Jingpho : Raiti mung hpaji jaw ai lam nnan ni hpaji jaw ai gaw, Moriori ni gaw New Zealand kaw na Chatham zinglawng de bu htawt lai wa ai kanu mungdan Maori hpung ni re. Shanhte na shanhte gadai rau nbung ai, simsa ai htung hking hpe galaw shahkut la ma ai.



English : There was also another tribe on the Chatham islands these were Maori who migrated away from New Zealand.

Jingpho : Chatham zinlawng kaw kaga amyu baw hpan ni naw nga nga ai re. Shanhte ni gaw New Zealand kaw na tsan ai de bu hkawm htawt sit mat ai Maori ngu ai ni re.



English : They called themselves the Moriori there were a few skirmishes and in the end, the Moriori were wiped out

Jingpho : Shanhte hkum shanhte Moriori ngu shaga ai dai kaw gasat ai kachyi mi nga hpang chyhtum Moriori ni yang tsi mat ai.



English : Individuals who had been involved for several decades helped us appreciate our strengths and passions while candidly assessing difficulties and even failures.

Jingpho : Yak ai lam, hkrat sum lam ni hkrum kadup nga ai hpe chye nga ning leng dinghkrai shagu gaw anhte a n-gun atsam, myit katu ai lam hpe manu shadan let shi ban law law karum shingtau shanglawm ya lai wa sai.



English : While listening to individuals share their individual, family, and organizational stories, we gained valuable insight into the past and some of the personalities who influenced for good or ill the culture of the organization.

Jingpho : Marai langai ngai gaw shanhte a lam, dinghku a lam, hte magam bungli a lam ni hpaw tsun ai lam hpe madat ai shaloi, lai mat wa sai aten ni hte uhpung uhpawng ntsa kaja ai (sh) nkaja ai shingkang nga ai lailen nkau mi kaw na manu dan ai lam lu la ai.



English : While understanding one's history does not assume understanding of culture, it does at least help people gain a sense of where they fall within the history of the organization.

Jingpho : Labau hpe chye ai hte ladat hpe chye ai ngu nmai myit la ai, shanhte labau kaw hkrat sum ai ni hpe masha ni chye na ya na matu sha re.



English : While assessing the successes and becoming aware of failures, individuals and the whole of the participating persons discover more deeply the values, mission, and driving forces of the organization.

Jingpho : Awng dang lam hte hkrat sum lam chye na ai lam hpe jep maram ai ten dinghkrai shagu hte shanglawm ai masha yawng hkra hte gaw uhpung langai a manu, hkam la ai lit hte ganawng shaja ai lam ni hpe grau nna sung sung mu mada wa ai.



English : In this instance, recalling previous instances of entrepreneurial behavior and resulting successes helped people to be open to new changes and new direction for the local church.

Jingpho : Ndai ga shadawn hta, bungli madu myit rawng ai arawn alai hte awngdang lam a lai sai ten na ga shadawn ni bai dum ai lam gaw buga nawku hpung a matu galai shai lam nnan re nna lam mahkrun nnan shabyin ya ai.



English : Such success stories lessened the fears of change, while creating positive inclinations toward change in the future.

Jingpho : Dai zawn re awng dang ai mau mwi ni gaw, shawng lam hta galai shai ai lam galaw na matu kaja ai hku mu na hpe ra sharawng ai myit ni hpe myit shapraw taw ai shaloi galai shai na hpe hkrit taw ai myit ni hpe shayawm kau ya nga ai.



English : Convergent thinking patterns are problem solving techniques that unite different ideas or fields to find a solution.

Jingpho : Shara langai kaw majaw nna myit sumru ai maka ni gaw nbung ai ningmu ni hte gaiwangs ni hpe mahtai lu na na matu pawng hkawm shangun ai manghkang hparan ai ladat ni rai nga ai.



[Day26]

English : The focus of this mindset is speed, logic and accuracy, also identification of facts, reapplying existing techniques, gathering information.

Jingpho : Ndai myit ningmu a maju gindai gaw lawan ladan masa, sawn dinglik masa, tup hkrak teng ai lam, lawnglam ni hpe madi shadaw ai lam, nga nga chyalu ladat hpaji ni hpe bai jai lang ai lam ni hte shiga lamang ni hpe mahkawng la ai lam ni rai nga ai.



English : The most important factor of this mindset is: there is only one correct answer. You only think of two answers, namely right or wrong.

Jingpho : Ndai myit a ahkyak dik npawt gaw: dai hta e mahtai jaw ai langai sha nga ai. Nang gaw jaw ai shut ai ngu tsun na mahtai lahkawn hpe sha mai myit ai.



English : This type of thinking is associated with certain science or standard procedures.

Jingpho : Ning re myit ai hpan gaw teng ai hpungtang hpaji madang nga ai bungli mahkrun hte matut manoi ai re.



English : People with this type of thinking have logical thinking, are able to memorize patterns, solve problems and work on scientific tests.

Jingpho : Dai zawn chye myit ai ni gaw kaja ai hku myit ai re, dai masha ni gaw chye myit dum ai, manghkang chye hpran ai ngut nna mungkan hpaji ni hpe chye galaw ma ai.



English : Humans are by far the most talented species in reading the minds of others.

Jingpho : Shinggyim masha ni gaw kaga ni a myit ni hpe hti sumru ai lam na atsam rawng htum ai amyu baw hpan rai nga ai.



English : That means we are able to successfully predict what other humans perceive, intend, believe, know or desire.

Jingpho : De lachyum gaw shinggyim masha ni gara hku shadum la ai lam, yaw shada lam, kam sham ai lam, chye na ai lam hte ra marit ai lam ni hpe awng dang ai hku tau chye na lu ai ngu ai re.



English : Among these abilities, understanding the intention of others is crucial. It allows us to resolve possible ambiguities of physical actions.

Jingpho : Ndai atsam ni kaw gaw, laga masha hpe myit sawn ya ai lam hpe chyena hkawnhkrang ai lam gaw a hkyak madung re. ndai lam ni gaw anhte hpe myit npyaw ai lam byin mai ai hkrang hte shamawt hkawm ai lam ni hpe hparan lu shangun nga ai.



English : For example, if you were to see someone breaking a car window, you would probably assume he was trying to steal a stranger's car.

Jingpho : Ga shadawn, lama nang hku na mawdaw pat hpe langai ngai shaga ai hpe nang mu yang, nang gaw dai wa jasam a mawdaw hpe lagu na shakut taw ai ngu nang tak la na re.



English : He would need to be judged differently if he had lost his car keys and it was his own car that he was trying to break into.

Jingpho : Lama shi gaw shi mawdaw zaw shamat kau ai rai yang ngu ai hte shi mawdaw hpe shi nan jahten taw ai rai yang, shi hpe tara dara ai lam nmai bung ai.



English : MRI is based on a physics phenomenon called nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), which was discovered in the 1930s by Felix Bloch (working at Stanford University) and Edward Purcell (from Harvard University).

Jingpho : MRI gaw Felix Bloch (Stanford Dakkasu hta magam gun) hte Edward Purcell (Harvard Dakkasu hta magam gun) kaw nna shaning 1930 hkan mu sawk la nna, nukalia (nuclear) hpri sharaw nsen atsam (NMR) ngut tsun ai hkrang jasat byin yan hta mahta ai re.



English : In this resonance, magnetic field and radio waves cause atoms to give off tiny radio signals.

Jingpho : Ndai kadu nsen hta, agang la ai lam hte radio leng gaw radio masat kumla ni hpe shapraw ya na matu atom ni shabyin ai.



English : In the year 1970, Raymond Damadian, a medical doctor and research scientist, discovered the basis for using magnetic resonance imaging as a tool for medical diagnosis.

Jingpho : 1970 ning hta, tsi du hte sawk sagawn ninghkring, Raymond Damidian gaw ana tam sagawn ai hking hku langai hku na hpri sharaw na pru ai nsen hte jai lang ai baw hpe sawk tam lu wa ai.



English : Four years later a patent was granted, which was the world´s first patent issued in the field of MRI.

Jingpho : Mali ning na mat ai hpang, hkrang madu ahkaw ahkang langai myi hpe jaw lai wa sai. Dai gaw MRI shing wang kata na mungkan ting a nambat langai hkrang madu ahkaw ahkang hpe ahkyak tawn ai lam rai lai wa sai.



English : In 1977, Dr. Damadian completed the construction of the first "whole-body" MRI scanner, which he called the "Indomitable".

Jingpho : 1977 hta Dr. Damadian gaw shawng na ¨hkum hkrang ting¨ jep ai baw MRI scanner hpe galaw shapraw ngut sai, dai hpe shi gaw ¨da kring da lang re ai¨ ngu shaga ai.



English : Asynchronous communication encourages time for reflection and reaction to others.

Jingpho : Asynchronous matut mahkai ai lam gaw kaga ni hpe nhtoi shingna ahkung ai na hte ginhtang galaw na matu aten hpe n-gun jaw ya nga ai.



English : It allows students the ability to work at their own pace and control the pace of instructional information.

Jingpho : Ndai gaw jawng ma ni hpe shanhte na shahte lagaw lahkam hta bungli galaw lu na atsam hte shiga matsun madun ai hte seng ai lagaw lahkam ni hpe reng hkang na matu atsam marai ni hpe jaw ya nga ai.



English : In addition, there are fewer time restrictions with the possibility of flexible working hours. (Bremer, 1998)

Jingpho : Matut nna gaw, bunli galaw ai aten hpe galai sha na byin mai na lam kaw kachyi mi nga na re. (Bremer,1998)



English : The use of the Internet and the World Wide Web allows learners to have access to information at all times.

Jingpho : Internet hte World Wide Web jai lang ai gaw hkaja ai ni a matu aten tup shiga lamang ni hpe mai hkaja na ahkang nga ai.



English : Students can also submit questions to instructors at any time of day and expect reasonably quick responses, rather than waiting until the next face-to-face meeting.

Jingpho : Jawngma ni hku nna ma sara ni hpe chye mayu ai ga san ni htap htuk manu ai hte lawan ai hku mahtai lu la na matu, hpang kalang myi man hkrum sharin na ten du hkra nla ai sha, aten shagu shara shagu hta mai tang shawn ai.



English : The postmodern approach to learning offers the freedom from absolutes. There is no one good way to learn.

Jingpho : Postmodern sharin achyin ai ladat gaw gip gyeng ai kaw na wang lu wang lang re ai de sa wa sai re. Sharin la na lam kaja ai lam langai mung nnga ai.



English : In fact, there is not one good thing to learn.Learning takes place in the experience between the learner and the knowledge presented.

Jingpho : Kaja nga yang gaw, gara lam mung sharin hkaja la na n ra ai. Hpaji hpe hkaja la ai wa a mahkrum madup hte sharin da ya ai machye machyang a ka´ang e sharin hkam la ai lam byin tai wa ai re.



English : Our current experience with all the do-it-yourself and information presenting, learning-based television shows illustrates this point.

Jingpho : Anhte ndai laman hkrum da ai mahkrum madup ni rai nga ai tinang hkrai galaw la ra ai lam ni hte shiga lamang tang madun ai ni, sharin hkaja la mai ai hkrangmu shiga lamang ni hpe yu nna ndai lam hpe mu lu mai nga ai.



English : So many of us find ourselves watching a television show that informs us of a process or experience in which we will never participate or apply that knowledge.

Jingpho : Anhte law malawng gaw tinang kaja wa ta tut galaw na nre ai shing nrai, jai lang na nrai nga ai amu lam yan ni hpe htawng madun da ai TV lamang ni hpe yu nga ma ai hpe mu chye lu ai.



English : We will never overhaul a car, build a fountain in our backyard, travel to Peru to examine ancient ruins, or remodel our neighbour´s house.

Jingpho : Anhte gaw mawdaw langai hpe ntsa lam sha jep ai lam, anhte na sun wang kata kaw hka hpawk galaw ai lam, moina hten za mat ai ni hpe hkaja na matu Peru de sa du hkawm ai lam, (sh) anhte a htingbu wa a nta hpe bai shatsawm garam ai lam galoi mung n-galaw ga ai.



English : Thanks to undersea fiber optic cable links to Europe and broadband satellite, Greenland is well connected with 93% of the population having internet access.

Jingpho : Pang lai npu hku na dawn la da ai fiber wan sumri lahkra da ai Uropa hte jak shagan (satellite) ni hpe chyeju kaba sai, Greenland kaw masha yawng a 93% gaw internet atsawm lu lang ma ai.



[Day27]

English : Your hotel or hosts (if staying in a guesthouse or private home) will likely have wifi or an internet connected PC, and all settlements have an internet cafe or some location with public wifi.

Jingpho : Na manam jarik (nang manam jarik dai nrai nta kaw nga taw yang) pc hte matut da ai internet dai nrai wifi nga na re. shara shagu kaw internet café dai nrai nkau shara kaw wifi nga ai.



English : As mentioned above, though the word ¨Eskimo¨ remains acceptable in the United States, it is considered pejorative by many non-U.S. Arctic peoples, especially in Canada.

Jingpho : Shawng hta tsun sai hte maren, ¨Eskimo¨ ga si gaw United States hta hkap la mai ai hku naw ngam ai rai timung, US nre ai masha grai law gaw shanhte hpe jahpoi ahpyak ai hku mu mada ma ai. Grai lagyi ai ginra na masha ni, grau nna gaw Canada kaw nga ma ai.



English : While you may hear the word used by Greenlandic Natives, its use should be avoided by foreigners.

Jingpho : Nang hku na Greenlandic Jau man bu ni shaga ai ga na ai ten, mai gan manam ni hku dai ga ni hpe koi gam ging ai.



English : The native inhabitants of Greenland call themselves Inuit in Canada and Kalaalleq (plural Kalaallit), a Greenlander, in Greenland.

Jingpho : Greenland kaw na ai masha ni gaw shanhte hkum shanhte Caneda hte Kalaalleq (Kalaallit) kaw na Inuit nga shaga nna Greenland hta gaw Greenlander masha ngu shaga la ma ai.



English : Crime, and ill-will toward foreigners in general, is virtually unknown in Greenland. Even in the towns, there are no ¨rough areas.¨

Jingpho : Ru hka amu hte law malawng hku nna maigan masha ni hpe nju ndawng ai myit ni gaw Greenland kaw nau nmu lu ai daram re ai. Mare nhtawng ni hkan e mung laja lana re ai gin ra ni mung n-nga ai re.



English : Cold weather is perhaps the only real danger the unprepared will face.

Jingpho : Katsi ai lamu marang masa gaw hkyen lajang da ai lam n nga ai ni hkrum sha chye ai shoihpa langai rai nga ai.



English : If you visit Greenland during cold seasons (considering that the further north you go, the colder it will be), it is essential to bring warm enough clothing.

Jingpho : Nshung ta hta Greenland de sa chyai ai rai yang (dingdung maga de sa magang katsi magang re hpe dum u), lum ai buhpun palawng law law la sa ging ai.



English : The very long days in the summer can lead to problems getting sufficient sleep and associated health issues.

Jingpho : Ginhtawng ta na nhtoi galu ai lam ni gaw yup nhkru ai manghkang ni byin shangun nna dai hte seng ai hkam ja lam manghkang ni hpe byin shangun nga ai.



English : During the summer, also watch out for the Nordic mosquitoes. Although they do not transmit any diseases, they can be irritating.

Jingpho : Ginhtawng ta hta e, Nordic (Uropa dan hte seng ai) jigrawng ni hpe mung sadi ra ai. Dai ni gaw ana li n shabra tim pyi kaprep ai, machyi ai lam byin chye ai.



English : While San Francisco´s economy is linked to it being a world-class tourist attraction, its economy is diversified.

Jingpho : San Francisco na bungli gaw mungkan kaw na sa chyai ai masha ni hte seng taw ai shaloi, dai hpe garan wa ai.



English : The largest employment sectors are professional services, government, finance, trade, and tourism.

Jingpho : Kaba htum ai bungli jaw ya ai bungli dabang ni gaw kan bau bungli jaw ya ai lam ni, asuya uhpung, jagum hpraw dap, gunrai htaw shalai hpung ni hte maigan bu hkawm magam bungli ni rai nga ai.



English : Its frequent portrayal in music, films, literature and popular culture has helped make the city and its landmarks known throughout the world.

Jingpho : Dai mahkawn, sumla hkrung, laili laika ngut nna myit kaba ai ladat ni a hkrang ni gaw myu ni hpe madi shadaw ai re ngut nna mungkan hta dai ni a majaw mying kaba ai.



English : San Francisco has developed a large tourist infrastructure with numerous hotels, restaurants, and top-notch convention facilities.

Jingpho : San Francisco gaw mungkan buhkawm ai lam hte seng nna ningpawt ninghpang ra madung re nga ai manam jarawp kaba law law, lu sha seng kaba ni hte tsaw dik madang zuphpawng ginra nta kaba ni hpe gaw sharawt la ngut sai re.



English : San Francisco is also one of the best places in the nation for other Asian cuisine: Korean, Thai, Indian, and Japanese.

Jingpho : San Francisco gaw mungdan kaw nga ai Asha dan: Korea, Thai, Kala hte Japan masha ni a lusha mai lu ai hkrak dik htum ai shara ni kaw na langai rai nga ai.



English : Traveling to Walt Disney World represents a major pilgrimage for many American families.

Jingpho : Walt Disney Mungkan de sa du hkawm chyai ai lam gaw Amerikan dinghku masha law law a matu nawku hpung hte seng nna hkawm ai zawn re nga ai.



English : The ¨typical¨ visit involves flying into Orlando International Airport, busing to an on-site Disney hotel, spending about a week without leaving Disney property, and returning home.

Jingpho : Ayang gaw Orlando nbungli dabang de sa, Disney manam jarik de mawdaw htee bai sa, dai kaw bat mi daram hkawm chyai ngut nna nta bai wa ai hku re.



English : There are infinite variations possible, but this remains what most people mean when they talk of ¨going to Disney World¨.

Jingpho : Dai kaw mahtai amyu myu hkum sum hpa mai bying ai, raitim ndai gaw masha malawng gaw ¨Disney Mungkan de sa na¨ ngu shanhte tsun ai shaloi na ten hpe shadum ya ai.



English : Many tickets sold online through auction websites such as eBay or Craigslist are partially used multi-day park-hopper tickets.

Jingpho : Manu shingjawng dut ai website ni re nga ai online ntsa eBay (sh) Craigslist kaw na dut ai lakmat ni gaw shani mga law law dut da ai ni re.



English : While this is a very common activity, it is prohibited by Disney: the tickets are non-transferable.

Jingpho : Ndai gaw madung galaw ai lamang rai ai majaw Disney kaw na mung lakmat ni hpe shada garan hkat na matu mung hkum pat tawn da ai re.



English : Any camping below the rim in Grand Canyon requires a backcountry permit.

Jingpho : Grand Canyon htinggawt npu na kaga shara hkan de camping pru na nga yang gaw laksan ahkang jaw lakmat la ra na re.



English : Permits are limited to protect the canyon, and become available on the 1st day of the month, four months prior to the start month.

Jingpho : Krung sinwa hpe makawp maga na matu ahkaw ahkang jaw ai ni gaw shadaw sharam nga ai, dai lakmat gaw shata mi a 1st ya, shawng hpang ai shata na matu shata mali jau na mai lu ai.



English : Thus, a backcountry permit for any start date in May becomes available on 1 Jan.

Jingpho : Dai majaw, Masha nau nnga ai mungdan kaw nga lu na matu gaw May kaw na hpang nna 1 Jan du hkra re.



English : Space for the most popular areas, such as the Bright Angel Campground adjacent to Phantom Ranch, generally fill up by the requests received on first date they are opened to reservations.

Jingpho : Phantom Ranch makau na Bright Angel Campground zawn re mying kaba ai shara hta law malawng karum hpyi ai ni a majaw shawng nnan nhtoi hta jahpan hpring ai, dai na matu alak mi hku na jahpan hpaw da ai.



English : There are a limited number permits reserved for walk-in requests available on a first come, first served basis.

Jingpho : Dai ni gaw shawng nnan walk-in shawng htet ai lam hta mare kade ngu galaw da ai re.



English : Entering Southern Africa by car is an amazing way to see all the region´s beauty as well as to get to places off the normal tourist routes.

Jingpho : Mawdaw hte dingda Africa de shangwa ai lam gaw ginra a tsawm htap ai yawng hte ayan mungkan bu hkawm masha ni hkawm ai lam na shara hkan lu du hkring yu lu na matu mau hpa lam ladat re.



[Day28]

English : This can be done in a normal car with careful planning but a 4x4 is highly advised and many locations are only accessible with a high wheel base 4x4.

Jingpho : Ndai hpe yu maya mawdaw kaw nga yang masing atsawm jahkrat ra na raitim 4x4 hpe gaw grai madi shadaw ai, hkrun lam law law gaw 4x4 zawn re tsaw ai leng hte she hkawm sa lu ai.



English : Keep in mind while planning that although Southern Africa is stable not all neighboring countries are.

Jingpho : Dingdung Africa gaw kaja tim laga makau mungdan ni gaw nkaja shaloi myit hta sha bang da u.



English : Visa requirements and costs vary from nation to nation and are affected by the country you come from.

Jingpho : Mungdan shang lakmat a matu ra rawng ai lam ni hte manu jahpu ni gaw mungdan langai hte langai shai nna, nang sa wa ai mungdan hte mung seng ai.



English : Each country also has unique laws requiring what emergency items need to be in the car.

Jingpho : Mungdan shagu gaw mawdaw kata kaw ra wa mai ai ahkyak ahkya arung arai ni hpe bang tawn da na matu laklai ai tara upadi ni nga ai re.



English : Victoria Falls is a town in the western portion of Zimbabwe, across the border from Livingstone, Zambia, and near Botswana.

Jingpho : Victoria Hka rum ni gaw Zimbabwe mungdan a sinna maga daw kaw na mare langai mi rai nna, Zambia mungdan na Livingstone mare kaba hte Botswan mare makau na jarit mayan re nga ai.



English : The town lies immediately next to the falls, and they are the major attraction, but this popular tourist destination offers both adventure seekers and sightseers plenty of opportunities for a longer stay.

Jingpho : Dai mare kaba gaw hka rum lahkawng makau kaw sha re, ngut na dai hka rum yan gaw madung myit shang sha shara re, raitim ndai sumtsan manam mying kaba shara gaw loi na na nga na matu yu chyai shara law la ai hte nhkrit ntsang hkawm sa mayu ai ni a matu shara re.



English : In the rainy season (November to March), the water volume will be higher and the Falls will be more dramatic.

Jingpho : Yanam ta hta (shata man shi langai kaw na shata man matsum), hka shadang grau jaw wa na ra ai hte Mangai ta hta gaw grau hkamsha pyaw na ra ai.



English : You are guaranteed to get wet if you cross the bridge or walk along the trails winding near the Falls.

Jingpho : Lama na nang hkarum makau na mahkrai hku lai wa ai wanleng lam hku hkawm lai wa shaloi nang madi mat na re ngu pahkam hkam ai.



English : On the other hand, it is precisely because the volume of water is so high that your viewing of the actual Falls will be obscured—by all the water!

Jingpho : Maga mi hku yu ga nga yang, ndai gaw hka yang hta tup hkrak jaw ai re hpa majaw nga yang hka a hkrang shadang gaw grai tsaw nna nang hka rum hpe kaja yu ai lam hpe shingdang ya hkrum na re.



English : Tomb of Tutankhamun (KV62). KV62 may be the most famous of the tombs in the Valley, the scene of Howard Carter´s 1922 discovery of the almost intact royal burial of the young king.

Jingpho : Tutanhkamun a lup (KV62). 1922 a Howard Carter na a sak kaji ai hkaw hkam a lup wa dingsa hpe mu tam ai ginra re ai, KV62 gaw dai hkaraw kaw na mying kaba dik ai lup rai na re.



English : Compared to most of the other royal tombs, however, the tomb of Tutankhamun is barely worth visiting, being much smaller and with limited decoration.

Jingpho : Kaga hkaw hkam ni hte seng ai lup law malawng rau shingdaw yang, Tutankhamun a lup wa gaw grau kaji ai hte shadawn nna shatsawm tawn ai lam hte re ai majaw sa wam du hkawm na matu nau n-grin dan nga ai.



English : Anyone interested in seeing evidence of the damage to the mummy done during attempts to remove it from the coffin will be disappointed as only the head and shoulders are visible.

Jingpho : Mang jahraw hpe da-u kaw na shaw na matu galaw ai shaloi hten mat ai lam sakse hpe yu na matu myit lawm ai masha kadai raitimung, baw hte lahpa ni hpe sha mai mu lu ai re majaw myit daw mat na re.



English : The fabulous riches of the tomb are no longer in it, but have been removed to the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

Jingpho : Grai kaba hkik hkam ai lup ni gaw dai kaw nnga sai, raitim dai ni hpe Cairo na Egyptian Madun Htingnu de htawt dat ai.



English : Visitors with limited time would be best to spend their time elsewhere.

Jingpho : Aten nau nlu ai sa chyai ai ni gaw laga shara kaw sa ai grau hkrak na re.



English : Phnom Krom, 12 km southwest of Siem Reap. This hilltop temple was built at the end of the 9th century, during the reign of King Yasovarman.

Jingpho : Phnom Krom nawku jawng gaw Siem Reap a dingda sinna maga a 12 km tsan ai kaw nga ai re. Ndai bum pungding nawku jawng gaw tsa ban 19 htum wa maga, Yasovarman hkaw hkam wa up ai ten ladaw hta gaw gap lai wa ai re.



English : The gloomy atmosphere of the temple and the view over the Tonle Sap lake make the climb to the hill worthwhile.

Jingpho : Dai numri kaput taw ai nawku jawng hte Tonle Sap hka lawng nta kaw na mu ai gaw dai kawng lu ai hpe mau shadan ai lam re.



English : A visit to the site can be conveniently combined with a boat trip to the lake.

Jingpho : Ginra shara de hkawm chyai ai lam gaw nawng de hkali jawn nna hkawm ai hte arau galaw mai nga ai.



English : The Angkor Pass is needed to enter the temple so do not forget to bring your passport along when heading to Tonle Sap.

Jingpho : Angkor Pass nawku jawng de shang ra ai dai majaw Tonle Sap de sa yang passport la wa na hkum ma lap u.



English : Jerusalem is the capital and largest city of Israel, though most other countries and the United Nations do not recognize it as Israel´s capital.

Jingpho : Yerusalem gaw Israel mungdan a mare daju rai nga ai. Rai timung, kaga mungdan ni hte Unitd Nations hpung kaw na gaw dai hku n hkap la ma ai.



English : The ancient city in the Judean Hills has a fascinating history spanning thousands of years.

Jingpho : Dai Judean bum kaw na myu kaw moi shaning sen hku kaw na labau kaja ni nga ai.



English : The city is holy to the three monotheistic religions - Judaism, Christianity and Islam, and serves as a spiritual, religious, and cultural center.

Jingpho : Dai mare kaba gaw makam masum a matu chyoipra nga ai - Yuda makam, Hkristan, hte Islam ni rai nga ai, bai nna wenyi, makam hte htunghking madung shara mung rai nga ai.



English : Due to the religious significance of the city, and in particular the many sites of the Old City area, Jerusalem is one of the main tourist destinations in Israel.

Jingpho : Mare kaba a nawku htung hte ahkyak ai lam ni hte mare ginwang a laksan shara ni a majaw Yerusalem gaw Israela mung na bu hkawm shara ni a madung kaw lawm nga ai.



English : Jerusalem has many historic, archeological and cultural sites, along with vibrant and crowded shopping centers, cafés, and restaurants.

Jingpho : Yerusalem gaw labau lam, labu htu sagawn lam hte htunghking hte seng ai shara law law nga ai, dai hta n-ga gat ka´ang seng ni, kohpi hte lusha seng ni hpring kamawg ai shara mung re.



English : Ecuador requires that Cuban citizens receive an invitation letter prior to entering Ecuador through international airports or frontier admission points.

Jingpho : Ecuador gaw Ecuador de shang na matu mungdan ga daga hte seng ai pyenli daru ni hku na lamu ga jarik shang na lamyi laman lu ai hku na Cuban mungchying masat laika lu ra ai.



English : This letter must be legalized by the Ecuadorian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and comply with certain requirements.

Jingpho : Kaja ra ahkyak ai ni hpe myit hkrum let, Ecuadorian a Maigan Kyit Hkai Dap kaw na ndai laika hpe tara shang galaw ya ra ai.



[Day29]

English : These requirements are designed to provide an organized migratory flow between both countries.

Jingpho : Ndai ra gadawn ai lam ni hpe mungdan lahkawng lapran shara mi na shara mi atsawm hkrang hkra shajin da ai hpe lajang na matu gyin sawn hpajang da ai re.



English : Cuban citizens who are US green card holders should visit an Ecuadorian Consulate to obtain an exemption to this requirement.

Jingpho : Cuban mungchying masha re nna US kat pa tsit (mai nga ai card) lang da ai ni gaw Ekwidaw mungdan sumtsan kasa ni kaw mara lawt ahkaw ahkang lu na matu sa mu hkrum ra ai.



English : Your passport must be valid for at least 6 months beyond your travel dates. A round/onward trip ticket is needed to prove the length of your stay.

Jingpho : Hkrum lam nhkawm shi yang na passport shata 6 daram nu nga ra ai. Sa na wa na / sa na sha lengmak a matu nang gada ya nga na hpe madun ra ai.



English : Tours are cheaper for larger groups, so if you´re by yourself or with just one friend, try to meet other people and form a group of four to six for a better per-person rate.

Jingpho : Bu hkawm ai magam gaw masha uhpung kaba ni a matu gaw grau manu hpa ai re. Dai majaw lama na nang hkrai sha manang langai hte sha rai yang gaw, masha langai hkrai a manu gau hkyemsa na matu mali kaw na kru du hkra re ai masha uhpung hkrang pru wa hkra laga masha ni hte hkrum tsup na matu shakut u.



English : However, this shouldn´t really be off your concern, because often tourists are shuffled around to fill the cars.

Jingpho : Raitim, nang myit ntang ra ai, hpa majaw nga yang sa chyai ai ni gaw mawdaw hpring tup sa taw ma ai.



English : It seems actually to be more a way of tricking people into believing they have to pay more.

Jingpho : Dai gaw masha ni hpe shanhte gumhpraw grau nna jaw ra ai ngu shadu wa hkra galaw ai maw lanyet ai lam hte kaja nan grau bung wa nga ai.



English : Towering above the north end of Machu Picchu is this steep mountain, often the backdrop to many photos of the ruins.

Jingpho : Machu Picchu a lahta kaw na tower gaw grai tsaw ai bum re, chyhkring hkring sumla chyhten ni hta mu lu ai.



English : It looks a bit daunting from below, and it is a steep and difficult ascent, but most reasonably fit persons should be able to make it in about 45 minutes.

Jingpho : Lawu kaw na yu yang loi hkrit ra na zawn zawn, lung na matu yak ai zawn san tim hkum hkrang n-gun ja hkam kaja ai ni gaw minit 45 laman hta hkawm sa lu ai.



English : Stone steps are laid along most of the path, and in the steeper sections steel cables provide a supporting handrail.

Jingpho : Nlung ni hpe lam ding yang hta jahkrat tawn da nna hpri gang sumri hte lata jum mai ai hku hkrai hkrai da ai.



English : That said, expect to be out of breath, and take care in the steeper portions, especially when wet, as it can become dangerous quickly.

Jingpho : Dai tsun lai wa ai gaw, n´sa matut sa na matu myit mada ai hte grau kadawng ai daw hta sadi u, grau nna gaw madi taw ai shaloi ndai gaw a-lawan sha hkrit tsang hpa shara byin chye wa ai re.



English : There´s a tiny cave near the top that must be passed through, it is quite low and a rather tight squeeze.

Jingpho : Ntsa maga makau de na lung pu kaji langai hpe lai ra na re. Dai lung pu gaw loi nem nna ram ram chyat ai re.



English : Seeing the sites and wildlife of the Galapagos is best done by boat, just as Charles Darwin did it in 1835.

Jingpho : 1835 ning hta Charles Darwin galaw ai zawn, Galapagos kaw nga ai ginra ni hte du sat dumyeng ni hpe gaw hka li hte yu chyai pyaw dik htum re.



English : Over 60 cruise ships ply the Galapagos waters - ranging in size from 8 to 100 passengers.

Jingpho : Galapagos hka kaw masha 8 kaw na 100 daram htaw nna sanghpaw 60 daram htawsa htawwa galaw taw ai.



English : Most people book their place well in advance (as the boats are usually full during the high season).

Jingpho : Masha law malawng gaw lawan wan shawng htet da ma ai (dai sanghpaw gaw ndai shata hta ayan masha hpring ai majaw).



English : Be sure the agent through whom you book is a Galapagos specialist with a good knowledge of a wide variety of ships.

Jingpho : Nang tau hkrau shap ai lam galaw ai dat kasa gaw sanghpaw ni a lam atsawm chye ai Galapagos laksan kungkyang ai masha rai u ga.



English : This will ensure that your particular interests and/or constraints are matched with the ship most suitable to them.

Jingpho : Ndai gaw nang na laksan myit lawm ai lam hte shagwi ai lam gaw shanhte hte htap htuk htum sanghpaw hte htap htuk nga ai.



English : Before the Spanish arrived in the 16th century, northern Chile was under Inca rule while the indigenous Araucanians (Mapuche) inhabited central and southern Chile.

Jingpho : 16th century hta Spain ni ndu shit yang, dingda Chile hpe Inca ni aup hkang ai re dai shaloi Araucanians masha (Mapuche) ni Chile kaang hte dingdung kaw nga ma ai.



English : The Mapuche were also one of the last independent American indigenous groups, that were not fully absorbed into Spanish-speaking rule until after Chile´s independence.

Jingpho : Mapuche ni gaw hpang jahtum shanglawt lu ai American myu kaji hpung ni re nna shanhte hpe Chile ni shanglawt lu du hkra Spain ga shaga na matu shalawm la ma ai.



English : Although Chile declared independence in 1810 (amid the Napoleonic wars that left Spain without a functioning central government for a couple of years), decisive victory over the Spanish was not achieved until 1818.

Jingpho : Chile gaw 1810 hta rawt malan sai ngu ndau tim mung (Napoleonic majan lapran shaning law law hta Spain ni gaw mungdan up hkang ai bungli atsawm nlu galaw wa ai), gaja sha Spanish hpe shaning 1818 du hkra nlu dang manga la ma ai.



English : The Dominican Republic (Spanish: República Dominicana) is a Caribbean country that occupies the eastern half of the island of Hispaniola, which it shares with Haiti

Jingpho : Dominican Republic (Spanish: Republica Dominicana) gaw Haiti hte rau Hispaniola zinlawng a singpraw maga chyen mi hpe up hkang lai wa ai Caribbean mungdan langai re.



English : Besides white sand beaches and mountain landscapes, the country is home to the oldest European city in the Americas, now part of Santo Domingo.

Jingpho : Panglai zaibru jang ahpraw hte bum maling ni hta n-ga, dai mungdan, ya na Santo Domingo daw gaw America ni hta na moi shawng de na Europa mare kaba langai na mungdan nta re.



English : The island was first inhabited by the Taínos and Caribes. The Caribes were an Arawakan-speaking people who had arrived around 10,000 BCE.

Jingpho : Ndai ginlawng hta Taiˊno hte Caribe ni shawng shingbyi nga hpang wa sai. Caribe ni gaw BCE 10,000 daram na nga hpang nna Arawakan aga shaga ai ni re ma ai.



English : Within a few short years following the arrival of European explorers, the population of Tainos had significantly been reduced by the Spanish conquerors

Jingpho : Europa sawk tam maram masha ni du ai hpang shaning kadun laman hta Tainos a masha jahpan hpe gaw dang ka´up sha ai Spain masha ni kawn alak mi re nna shayawm kau ya ai hkrum lai wa sai.



English : Based on Fray Bartolomé de las Casas (Tratado de las Indias) between 1492 and 1498 the Spanish conquerors killed around 100,000 Taínos.

Jingpho : Fray Bartolome de las Casas a laika buk Tratado de las Indias hku nga yang gaw, shaning 1492 hte shaning 1498 lapran hta padang dip lu ai Spain ni gaw Tainos masha 100,000 daram sat kau lai wa sai.



English : Jardín de la Unión. This space was built as the atrium for a 17th-century convent, of which the Templo de San Diego is the sole surviving building.

Jingpho : Jardin de la Union. Dai shara hpe 17th-century a ma ma nawku jawng hku shachyaw wa ai, dai gaw Templo de San Diego kaw na langai sha ngam taw ai re.



[Day30]

English : It now functions as the central plaza, and always has a lot of things going on, day and night.

Jingpho : Ya gaw dai gaw madung gat kaba zawn rai taw sai rai nna shani shana arai law law ni hpe mai lu nga sai re.



English : There are a number of restaurants surrounding the garden, and in the afternoons and evening there free concerts are often given from the central gazebo.

Jingpho : Dai kaw nampan sun hpe shinggrup da ai lusha seng ni grai law hkra nga nna, chyingtung lai ten hte shana de hkan ginra nta kasha daju kaw gumhpraw n jaw ra ai yungwi pinra ni nga chye ai.



English : Callejon del Beso (Alley of the Kiss). Two balconies separated by only 69 centimeters is home of an old love legend.

Jingpho : Callejon Del Beso (Kiss na lam lapran). 69 centimeter sha gang nna galaw da ai nbang pinra lahkawng gaw moi na tsaw ra hkat ai lam a dum nta rai nga ai.



English : For a few pennies some children will tell you the story.

Jingpho : Gumhpraw dengga kachyi mi a majaw ma nkau mi gaw nang hpe mau mwi tsun dan na re.



English : Bowen Island is a popular day trip or weekend excursion offering kayaking, hiking, shops, restaurants, and more.

Jingpho : Bowen shara gaw lani mi hkrum lam hta mying grai kaba ai re dai nrai bungli pat ai shani hta kayaking jawn ai, bum lung ai, gat mari ai, lung sha seng hte laga ni nga ai re.



English : This authentic community is located in Howe Sound just off Vancouver, and is easily accessed via scheduled water taxis departing Granville Island in downtown Vancouver.

Jingpho : Ndai jet ai uhpung gaw, Vancouver a Howe Sound mayan kaw shanu nga ai re nna shap hka-mawdaw hte Vancouver mare kaw na Granville zimlom na tau hkrau shajin na mai rawt sa ai re.



English : For those who enjoy outdoor activities, a trek up the Sea to Sky corridor is essential.

Jingpho : Shinggan lamang ni hpe pyaw dum ai ni a matu gaw, pang lai makau hku hkan nna lamu htingwung lam de lam galu hkawm ai lam gaw ra madung rai nga ai.



English : Whistler (1.5 hour drive from Vancouver) is expensive but well-known because of the 2010 Winter Olympics.

Jingpho : Whistler (Vancouver kaw na hking hkum 1.5 ram gau ai) gaw manu hpu ai raitim 2010 Kashung ta Oylmpic a majaw mying gumhkawng nga ai.



English : In the winter, enjoy some of the best skiing in North America, and in the summer try some authentic mountain biking.

Jingpho : Nshung ta hta, Amerika Dingdung hta kaja dik ai hkyen pa hpan hte myit pyaw lam la u, ginhtawng ta hta gaw kaja nga ai bum de gaw leng jawn chyam yu u.



English : Permits must be reserved in advance. You must have a permit to stay overnight at Sirena.

Jingpho : Ahkang aya hpe tau hkrau hpyi da ra na. Nang hku na Sirena kaw lana mi nga shalai yang ahkang hpyi la ra na.



English : Sirena is the only ranger station that offers dormitory lodging and hot meals in addition to camping. La Leona, San Pedrillo, and Los Patos offer only camping with no food service.

Jingpho : Sirena gaw camping hta jan na shana yup mai ai manam jarawp hte kahtet hpoi hpoi lusha ni ma jaw ai namkawn du dabang rai nga ai. La Leona, San Pedrillo hte Los Patos ni hkan gaw camping sha mai galaw nna malu masha lajang ya ai lam ni n nga ai.



English : It is possible to secure park permits directly from the Ranger Station in Puerto Jiménez, but they do not accept credit cards

Jingpho : Puerto Jimenez a Ranger kaw na kalang ta aup hkang na matu mai byin ai, raitim shanhte credit card hpe nhkap la ai.



English : The Park Service (MINAE) does not issue park permits more than one month in advance of anticipated arrival.

Jingpho : The Park Service (MINAE) hpung gaw nampan tsun galaw ahkang lakmat hpe shata langai hta jan nna tau hkrau mai lu na ngu ai hpe ntsun shapraw da ai.



English : CafeNet El Sol offers a reservation service for a fee of US$30, or $10 for one-day passes; details on their Corcovado page.

Jingpho : Cafenet El Sol gaw alak myi lajang da ai lam hpe manu hpu US$30 hte galaw ya ai lam jaw nga ai re, ahkri ahkrai ni hpe gaw shanhte a Corcovado online laika man kaw re.



English : The Cook Islands are an island country in free association with New Zealand, located in Polynesia, in the middle of the South Pacific Ocean.

Jingpho : Cook Islands ngu ai zunlawng mungdan gaw Dingda Pacific nammuk dara a ka´ang na, Polynesia ngu ai shara kaw nga ai, New Zealand mungdan hte kanawn mazum lam, matut mahkai lam nga ai mungdan langai rai nga ai.



English : It is an archipelago with 15 islands spread out over 2.2 million km2 of ocean.

Jingpho : Dai shara gaw panglai ga 15 daram hte 2.2 million km2 daram nga ai re.



English : With the same time zone as Hawaii, the islands are sometimes thought of as ¨Hawaii down under¨.

Jingpho : Hawaii hte aten bung nna, zunlawng ni gaw kalang marang ¨Hawaii kata kaw sha re kun¨ ngu nna shadu ma ai.



English : Though smaller, it reminds some elderly visitors of Hawaii before statehood without all the large tourist hotels and other development.

Jingpho : Hawaii gaw manam jarik kaba ni, kaga bawngring lam ni nnga shi ai ten mungdaw mungdan hku nre shi ai sha naw kaji nga ai shaloi kaw na mying kaba ai manam ni sa du ga ai hpe myit dum shangun ai.



English : The Cook Islands do not have any cities but are composed of 15 different islands. The main ones are Rarotonga and Aitutaki.

Jingpho : The Cook Zunlawng ni hta mare kaba ngu ai hku nnga ai raitim nbung ai zunlawng 15 hte gahkyin da ai re. Madung zunlawng ni gaw Rarotonga hte Aitutaki re.



English : In developed countries today, providing deluxe bed and breakfasts has been raised to a sort of art-form.

Jingpho : Dai ni rawt jat sai mungdan ni kaw gaw, zinghkam yupra hte manap lu sha ni hpe gaw shingni hpan langai hku gaw sharawt wa sai re.



English : At the top end, B&Bs obviously compete mainly on two main things: bedding and breakfast.

Jingpho : Madang tsaw dik ai hta, B&B ni gaw madung hku na lam lahkawng hta sha shing jawng sai: yup ra hte jahpawt shat.



English : Accordingly, at the finest such establishments one is apt to find the most luxurious bedding, maybe a handmade quilt or an antique bed.

Jingpho : Dai zawn grai kaja ai langai hpe galaw wa ai hta grai manu ai yup bra, lada hte galaw da ai dai nrai manu dan ai yup bra hpe apt mu na matu re.



English : Breakfast may include seasonal delights of the region or the host´s speciality dish.

Jingpho : Manap lusha hta gaw grupyin shara kaw na du hkra hte htuk ai mu hpa lusha ni (sh) manam madu a laksan shat mai ni lawm mai nga ai.



English : The setting might be an historic old building with antique furnishings, manicured grounds and a swimming pool.

Jingpho : Shara law law masa gaw labau shang nta dingsa langai hte moi moi na manu dan ai rai ni hte nta hkinghku shachying tawn ai lam, lamu ga ni hpe lamyin rep shatsawm ai lam hte hka hpung yawt hka lawng ni hte mai byin wa ai.



English : Getting into your own car and heading off on a long road trip has an intrinsic appeal in its simplicity.

Jingpho : Madu a mawdaw hte hkrun lam galu sa ai lam gaw grai sang lang ai myit kata kaw nna ra sharawng ai lam re.



[Day31]

English : Unlike larger vehicles, you are probably already familiar with driving your car and know its limitations.

Jingpho : Madaw kaba zawn nre sha, na madaw hpe nang atsawm chye gau taw sai re majaw de a shadawn masat hpe chye u.



English : Setting up a tent on private property or in a town of any size can easily attract unwanted attention.

Jingpho : Shara laga kaw nta kasha galaw ai dai nrai myit shang sha nra ai ni hpe myu shagu hta aloi sha lu galaw ai.



English : In short, using your car is a great way to take a road trip but seldom in itself a way to ¨camp¨.

Jingpho : Kadun ai hku tsun ga nga yang, sumtsan bu hkawm ai lam hpe na a mawdaw hte sa yang gaw hkrak ai raitim, camp sa na matu gaw kalang marang n hkrak chye ai.



English : Car camping is possible if you have a large minivan, SUV, Sedan or Station Wagon with seats that lay down.

Jingpho : Lama na nang dung lahkum mai jahkrat ai minivan kaba, SUV, Sedan (sh) Station Wagon ni lu ai re yang mawdaw kaw yup nna bu hkawm ai lam mai galaw nga ai.



English : Some hotels have a heritage from the golden age of steam railways and ocean liners; before the Second World War, in the 19th or early 20th centuries.

Jingpho : Manam jarawp nkau mi gaw tsa ban 19 (sh) 20 ning jau jau hkan Mungkan Majan Nambat Lahkawng n hpang shi ai ten, salu n-gun hte gau ai wanleng lam ni hte nammuk dara rap sanghpaw ni nga ai ja prat na sali wunli ni hpe lu la da ai re.



English : These hotels were where the rich and the famous of the day would stay, and often had fine dining and nightlife.

Jingpho : Dai manam jarik ni gaw lutsu ai ngut nna mying kaba ai shani kaw nga wa ai shara kaw nga ai re, ngut nna dai kaw shana shat ni kaja ai ngut nna shana mung grai pyaw ai re.



English : The old fashioned fittings, the lack of the latest amenities, and a certain graceful agedness are also part of their character.

Jingpho : Moi na mawn sumli hking, hpang jahtum pru ra sharawng na zawn re ai arung arai n-nga ai lam hte ningja rawng nna laklai ai ugut gu ai lam ni mung shahte a sari sadang nkau myi rai nga ai.



English : While they are usually privately owned, they sometimes accommodate visiting heads of state and other dignitaries.

Jingpho : Shanhte gaw shanhte nan ayan na dinghkrai hku na madu da ai lam ni nga tim kalang lang gaw shanhte ni mungdan a ningbaw ni hte arawng aya nga ai ni hpang de sa chyai na myit shalawm ma ai.



English : A traveller with piles of money might consider a round the world flight, broken up with stays in many of these hotels.

Jingpho : Gumhpraw law law hte hkrum lam hkawm yang mungkan ting hpe nbungli hte sha sa nna, manam jarik law law hta nga na re.



English : A hospitality exchange network is the organization that connects travelers with locals in the cities they are going to visit.

Jingpho : Galai yu gawn ai zinghkri ngu ai gaw buga na bu hkawm ni shanhte sa chyai ai shara ni hpe lapran na matut mahkai ya ai uhpung uhpawng langai re.



English : Joining such a network usually just requires filling out an online form; although some networks offer or require additional verification.

Jingpho : Kaga nkau internet hkridun ni kaw gaw shajan tengman ai lam madun ai lam ni galaw ra ai rai tim law malawng gaw dai zawn re ai internet hkridun de matut mahkai na re yang internet kaw na jahpan hpe sha ka chyahpring na sha ra ai.



English : A listing of available hosts is then provided either in print and/or online, sometimes with references and reviews by other travelers.

Jingpho : Hkap tau la ai ni a jahpang hpe kalang lang hkum lam hkawm ai ni a madi shadaw laika ni hte shaw da ai laika dai nrai onlin hta lajang da ya ma ai.



English : Couchsurfing was founded in January 2004 after computer programmer Casey Fenton found a cheap flight to Iceland but did not have a place to stay.

Jingpho : Komputa lamang galaw ai wa Casey Fenton gaw Iceland de sa na nbungli gaw manu hkyemsa ai hpe mu tam ai, raitim nga shara nmu tam ai hpang 2004 January shata hta Couchsurfing hpe gin shapraw dat sai.



English : He emailed students at the local university and received an overwhelming number of offers for free accommodation.

Jingpho : Shi gaw buga dakkasu kaw na jawngma ni hpe email sa dat ai, dai hpang nga shara majoi mai nga na hte seng na msha grai nan she law hkra hpyi shawn wa ai hpe hkamla lu la ai.



English : Hostels cater primarily to young people – a typical guest is in their twenties – but you can often find older travellers there too.

Jingpho : Jarawp ni gaw madung hku na ramma ni a matu lajang ya ai - shawoi na manam langai gaw shanhte hkun hta lawm ai - raitim nang gaw hkrun lam hkawm ai asak kaba masha ni hpe mung dai hta jahkring hkring mu ai.



English : Families with children are a rare sight, but some hostels do allow them in private rooms.

Jingpho : Ma nga ai dinghku ni gaw yu hpa shara atsawm nmu ma ai, raitim jarawp nkau mi gaw shanhte hpe laksan gawk ni hta nga na ahkang jaw ma ai.



English : The city of Beijing in China will be the host city of the Olympic Winter Games in 2022, which will make it the first city to have hosted both the summer and winter Olympics.

Jingpho : Miwa mungdan a Beijing muklum gaw 2022 na Olympic Nshung ta Ginsup poi a nta madu re na re, ndai mungdan gaw ginhtawng hte nshung ta Olympics lahkawng hpe nta madu hku hkam la ai shawng nnan mare kaba re wa na re.



English : Beijing will host the opening and closing ceremonies and the indoor ice events.

Jingpho : Beijing kaw gaw hpawng hpaw hte hpawng ginchyum dat lamang hpe galaw na re nna nta kata kaw hkyen jawn ai lamang hpe ma galaw wa na re.



English : Other skiing events will be at the Taizicheng ski area in Zhangjiakou, about 220 km (140 miles) from Beijing.

Jingpho : Laga skiing lamang ni hpe Beijing hte 220 km daram tsan ai Zhangjiakou shara kaw galaw na re.



English : Most of the temples do have an Annual festival starting from November end to Mid of May, which varies according to each temple´s annual calendar.

Jingpho : Nawku jawng law malawng gaw November kaw na May shata ka-ang hkra Shaning shagu na lamang nga ai re nna nbung ai nawku jawng shagu hta mahta nna shaning shagu na ladaw shana ni mung nbung ma ai.



English : Most of the temple festivals is celebrated as part of temple´s anniversary or presiding deity´s birthday or any other major event associated with the temple.

Jingpho : Nawku jawng law malawng a poi hpe jawng a shaning hpring langai ngai (sh) dai nawku jawng a lamu kasa num a shangai nhtoi (sh) nawku jawng hte seng ai poi lamang ni hta galaw ma ai.



English : Kerala´s temple festivals are very interesting to see, with regular procession of decorated elephants, temple orchestra and other festivities.

Jingpho : Kerala nawku jawng gaw magoi sumla ni hte mawn nna yung ngoi lamang ngut nna lang lamang ni hte grai yu pyaw ai re.



English : A World´s Fair (commonly called World Exposition, or simply Expo) is large international festival of arts and sciences.

Jingpho : A mungkan lamang (mungkan hpe sang lang ai ngu mung sha ga ai, dai nrai Expo) gaw mungkan ting hkang hte hpaji lamang re.



English : Participating countries present artistic and educational displays in national pavilions to showcase world issues or their country´s culture and history.

Jingpho : Shingni hte seng ai hta shang lawm ai mungdan ni hte laili laika ni hte myu sha lam yan galaw ai shara kaw shanhte a mungdan na htunghking ni hte labau ni hpe madun dan lai wa masai.



English : International Horticultural Expositions are specialised events which showcase floral displays, botanical gardens and anything else to do with plants.

Jingpho : Mungdan ga daga de seng nna Horticultural hte seng ai shaleng dan ai lam ni gaw nampan kasi madun ai lam, hpun kawa hte seng ai nampan sun hte hpun kawa ni hte seng ai galaw na lam amyu myu hpe madun dan ai lamang hpe laksan hkaja lai wa sai re.



[Day32]

English : Although in theory they can take place annually (so long as they are in different countries), in practice they are not.

Jingpho : Myit masat hta gaw shanhte ni shaning shagu lu galaw ai re tim mung (shanhte ni nbung ai mungdan ni kaw nga taw ai majaw grai na ai) tatut hta gaw shanhte ni nlu galaw ai.



English : These events normally last anywhere between three and six months, and are held on sites no smaller than 50 hectares.

Jingpho : Shawoi hku na ndai lamang ni gaw shata masum hte kru lapran shara shagu hta na chye ai, dai lamang hpe hekta 50 hta n yawm ai shara ni hta galaw lai wa sai.



English : There are many different film formats that have been used over the years. Standard 35 mm film (36 by 24 mm negative) is much the commonest.

Jingpho : Shingning law law hta nbung ai sumla hkrung gayet ai hkrang ni hpe jai lang wa sai. Kasi madang 35 mm sumla hkrung (24 mm negative kawn 36) gaw malawng grau lang ma ai.



English : It can usually be replenished fairly easily if you run out, and gives resolution roughly comparable to a current DSLR.

Jingpho : Ndai ni gaw nang ma mat ai rai tim aloi sha bai mai chyahpring nga ai rai nna DSLR hte shingdaw nna mahtai lu jaw nga ai.



English : Some medium-format film cameras use a 6 by 6 cm format, more precisely a 56 by 56 mm negative.

Jingpho : Nkau camera kasha ni gaw 6 by 6 cm format hpe lang ma ai, 56 by 56 mm negative gaw grau hkrak ai re.



English : This gives resolution almost four times that of a 35 mm negative (3136 mm2 versus 864).

Jingpho : Ndai gaw 35 mm negative (3136 mm2 hte 864) hta na htam mali daram dan leng ai lam nga ai.



English : Wildlife is among the most challenging motifs for a photographer, and needs a combination of good luck, patience, experience and good equipment.

Jingpho : Nam dusat ni gaw sumla gayet ai ni a matu myit grai sang sha ai lam re, ngut nna gam kaja ai, myit galu ai, mahkrum madup ngut nna rai kaja ni mung ra ai re.



English : Wildlife photography is often taken for granted, but like photography in general, a picture is worth a thousand words.

Jingpho : Nam dusat dumyeng sumla gayet ai lam gaw manu grai hkrak ai, raitim sumla gayet ai lam hpe law malawng tsun ai gaw, sumla langai gaw ga si hkying mi hte dan ai.



English : Wildlife photography often requires a long telephoto lens, though things like a flock of birds or a tiny creature need other lenses.

Jingpho : Dusat dumyen sumla gayet ai hpaji hta u hpung mi dusat kaji ai hku hpan da ai baw zawn re ni hpe kaga pat nhpai baw hte mai gayet tim, ayan na galu ai baw sin-yu sumla pat nhpai gaw ra nga ai.



English : Many exotic animals are hard to find, and parks sometimes have rules about taking photographs for commercial purposes.

Jingpho : Laklai nna tsam ai dusat ni hpe mu tam na matu yak la nga ai re nna nampan sun ni gaw kalang marang gaw hpaga yumga a matu yaw shada nna sumla gayet ai lam a matu rit kawp tara ni hpe chyahkrat da chye ai.



English : Wild animals might either be shy or aggressive. The environment might be cold, hot, or otherwise hostile.

Jingpho : Nam kaw na dusat dumyeng ni gaw gaya chye ai (sh) jahte tam chye ma ai. Makau grup yin masa ni gaw katsi ai, kahtet ai (sh) kaga hku nga yang hpyen tai chye nga ai.



English : The world has over 5,000 different languages, including more than twenty with 50 million or more speakers.

Jingpho : Mungkan gaw nbung ai ga hpan 5,000 ram nga nna, wan 50 tsun ai ga grau ai hte re hpan hkun hta grau nna lawm ai re.



English : Written words are often easier to understand than spoken words, also. This is especially true of addresses, which are often difficult to pronounce intelligibly.

Jingpho : Laika ka da ai ga si ni gaw shaga ai ga si ni hta grau chye na loi ai. Grau nna gaw ndai gaw grai jaw ai ga re, chye na hkra nsen shapraw na yak nga ai.



English : Many entire nations are completely fluent in English, and in even more you can expect a limited knowledge - especially among younger people.

Jingpho : Mungdan law malawng gaw Inglik ga hpe hkrak chye ma ai, ngut na machye machyang mung chyoi ai - grau nna gaw asak kaji ai ramma ni rai nga ai.



English : Imagine, if you will, a Mancunian, Bostonian, Jamaican and Sydneysider sitting around a table having dinner at a restaurant in Toronto.

Jingpho : Shingran yu ga, nang kam yang, Mancun masha, Boston masha, Jamaica masha hte Sydney masha ni arau Toronto kaw nga ai lusha seng langai hta shana shat arau dung sha taw nga ai.



English : They´re regaling each other with stories from their hometowns, told in their distinct accents and local argot.

Jingpho : Shanhte gaw shada da shanhte a dai daw buga na mau mwi ni hkai nna shanhte a lak lai ai ga nsen hte tsun sha a taw ma ai.



English : Buying food in supermarkets is usually the cheapest way to get fed. Without cooking opportunities, choices are however limited to ready-made food.

Jingpho : Gat seng kaba hkan malu masha ni mari la na sha ai gaw manu hpa dik htum re. Shadu sha na ahkaw ahkang nnga yang gaw, ready-made lusha ni sha sha ra na malawng ai.



English : Increasingly supermarkets are getting a more varied section of ready-made food. Some even provide a microwave oven or other means to heat food.

Jingpho : Gat seng kaba ni gaw alu tsu re lusha hpang law law grau nna law lu wa ma ai. Nkau hkan gaw lawan shadu myihprap wanhtung lajang ya ma ai nkau hkan gaw lu sha hpe shalum sha na matu re.



English : In some countries or types of stores there is at least one on-site restaurant, often a rather informal one with affordable prices.

Jingpho : Mungdan nkau mi kaw nga ai seng kaba kata hkan dang di lu ai manu hte dut ya ai lusha seng yawm htum seng langai nga ai.



English : Make and carry copies of your policy and your insurer´s contact details with you.

Jingpho : Na a asak pahkam hkrang tara ni hte rau pahkam hkam ya ai wa hpe matut mahkai mai na ahkri ahkrai ni hpe atsawm galaw da na dai laika ni a kanan ni hpe mung gun hkawm u.



English : They need to show the insurer´s e-mail address and international phone numbers for advice/authorizations and making claims.

Jingpho : Shanhte gaw hpyi lajin lam galaw ai hte hpaji jaw/ahkaw hkang jaw na matu mungkan ga daga hte seng ai ga shaga jak nambat hte pahkam hkam ai wa a e-mail hkringdat hpe madun ra na.



English : Have another copy in your luggage and online (e-mail to yourself with attachment, or stored in the ¨cloud¨).

Jingpho : Na rungrai bang ai baw hte online kaw kanan langai tawn u (na email kaw dai hpe kapyawn sa u (sh) ¨clooud¨ kaw zing da u).



English : If traveling with a laptop or tablet, store a copy in its memory or disc (accessible without the internet).

Jingpho : Lama laptop (sh) tablet hte hkrun lam hkawm yang, de a memory (sh) jak pa (internet nlu tim mai lang ai) hta kanan bang lang u.



English : Also give policy/contact copies to traveling companions and relatives or friends back home willing to help.

Jingpho : Polisi/matut mahkai hkring dat kanan ni hpe dum nta de bai wa na rau manaw manang ni hte jinghku ni shing nrai, manang ni hpe karum na matu mung jaw da u.



English : Moose (also known as elk) aren´t inherently aggressive, but will defend themselves if they perceive a threat.

Jingpho : Shan krang kaba (zau nyi kaba ngu mung chye da ai) gaw mi kaw nna jahte ntam chye ma ai, raitim shanhte hpe jahkrit shama wa yang gaw bai htim wa chye ai.



[Day33]

English : When people don´t see moose as potentially dangerous, they may approach too closely and put themselves at risk.

Jingpho : Masha ni shan krang kaba hpe hkrit hpa re ai ngu nmu mada na makau de nau shani sa yang shanhte ni hkrit hpa hkrum sha chye ai.



English : Drink alcoholic drinks with moderation. Alcohol affects everyone differently, and knowing your limit is very important.

Jingpho : Tsa lawm lu hpa ni hpe shadawn sharam hte lu u. Tsa chyaru gaw masha shagu hpe nbung ai hku akyu jaw nga ai rai nna nang na masat shadang hpe chye ai lam gaw grai ahkyak nga ai.



English : Possible long term health events from excessive drinking can include liver damage and even blindness and death. The potential danger is increased when consuming illegally produced alcohol.

Jingpho : Grai lai nna tsa lu ai lam kaw na aten galu hkamja lam hta byin mai ai mabyin ni kaw gaw sin hten za ai lam hte myi nmu mat ai mung lawm nna si hkrum si htan du wa hkra lawm nga ai. Mai byin ai hkrit tsang hpa ni gaw tara nshang ai hku shapraw tawn ai tsa ni hpe lu sha ai shaloi grau law wa ai.



English : Illegal spirits can contain various dangerous impurities including methanol, which can cause blindness or death even in small doses.

Jingpho : Tara hte nhtan shai ai wenyi ni gaw kaji timung myi di ai (sh) si ai hpe shabyin chye ai methanol lawm ai hkrit tsang ra ai nsan nseng ai baw amyu myu lawm nga chye ai.



English : Eyeglasses can be cheaper in a foreign country, especially in low-income countries where labour costs are lower.

Jingpho : Myit set ni gaw maigan mungdan hkan gaw manu hkyem sa na re, grau nna gaw bungli galaw manu jahpu shau nna shang gumhpraw manu nkaba ai mungdan re nga ai.



English : Consider getting an eye exam at home, especially if insurance covers it, and bringing the prescription along to be filed elsewhere.

Jingpho : Myi jep ai lam hpe nta kaw galaw ai rai yang, grau nna gaw pahkam gumhpraw ram ai rai yang, shara mi kaw tsi matsun hpe mai galaw la ai.



English : High-end brand-name frames available in such areas may have two problems; some may be knock-offs, and the real imported ones may be more expensive than at home.

Jingpho : Ndai shara kaw nga ai mying kaba ai brand ni hpe sadi ra ai lam lahkawng nga ai. Nkau mi gaw nau njet ai arai ni mai byin nna, nkau jet ai arai ni chyawm gaw nta kaw nga ai arai hta nan grau hpu chye ma ai.



English : Coffee is one of the world´s most traded commodities, and you can probably find many types in your home region.

Jingpho : Kahpi gaw mungkan hta hpaga yumga ga dik htum ai hpaga rai langai mi re nna nang na buga ginra hkan mung hpan amyu myu hpe nang mu lu na re.



English : Nevertheless, there are many distinctive ways of drinking coffee around the world that are worth experiencing.

Jingpho : Shingrai timung, mungkan ntsa hta chye ging ai kahpi lu ai ladat amyu myu lak lai hkra nga ai.



English : Canyoning (or: canyoneering) is about going in a bottom of a canyon, which is either dry or full of water.

Jingpho : Canyoning ((sh) canyoneering) ginsup hpan gaw hka hpring taw ai (sh) hkun hkraw ai hkrung sinwa htum pa du hkra sa ra ai baw re.



English : Canyoning combines elements from swimming, climbing and jumping--but requires relatively little training or physical shape to get started (compared to rock climbing, scuba diving or alpine skiing, for example).

Jingpho : Canyoning gaw hka hpung yawt ai, bum lung bum yu ai zawn re ni hpe gahkin ginsup ai lam re - raitim nnan hpang na matu gaw hkum hkrang hkrang sa hkra (sh) wunkat loi mi gaw galaw ra na re (ga shadawn, lung rawk bum lung ai, hka kata hpung yawt ai (sh) hkyen pa jawn ai ni hte shingjaw u).



English : Hiking is an outdoor activity which consists of walking in natural environments, often on hiking trails.

Jingpho : Lagaw lam bu hkawm ai gaw nta shinggan shamu shamawt lam rai nna shingra grupyin masa ni hta hkawm chyai ai lam lawm nga ai.



English : Day hiking involves distances of less than a mile up to longer distances that can be covered in a single day.

Jingpho : Shani hkan bum lung ai lam ni gaw deng mi hta shau nna lani mi hta lu hkam na daram hkawm sa mai ai tsan shadang rai nga ai.



English : For a day hike along an easy trail little preparations are needed, and any moderately fit person can enjoy them.

Jingpho : Lani mi lung ra ai bum de lung na matu shaman shakyang ai lam galaw ra nga ai rai nna hkam ja ai masha ni sha mai shang lawm nga ai.



English : Families with small children may need more preparations, but a day outdoors is easily possible even with babies and pre-school children.

Jingpho : Ma kasha nga ai nta masha ni gaw grau lazang da ra ai, raitim jawng lung sai ma nga ai ni gaw lani mi shingan prau ai gaw grai loi na re.



English : Internationally, there are nearly 200 running tour organizations. Most of them operate independently.

Jingpho : Mungkan ga hku na gaw, mungkan hta lagat shingjawng uhpung uhpawng 200 daram nga ai. Law malawng gaw kadai kaw mung shamyet shanat nnga ai sha bungli kri nga ma ai.



English : The Global Running Tours successor, Go Running Tours networks dozens of sightrunning providers on four continents.

Jingpho : Mungkan Lagat Shingjawng hpung a ninghkring wa, sa lagat uhpung ni gaw dan mali hta na gat shingjawng lawm masha law law hte zinghkri nga ai.



English : With roots in Barcelona´s Running Tours Barcelona and Copenhagen´s Running Copenhagen, it was quickly joined by Running Tours Prague based in Prague and others.

Jingpho : Shawa n-gun jaw ai lam ni hte rau Barcelona kaw Barcelona gat shingjawng poi hte Copehagen na Copenhagen gat shingjawng poi kaw Prague kaw galaw ai Prague gat shingjawng lamang hte laga sha ra kaw na ni lawan shakap wa ma ai.



English : There are many things you have to take into consideration before and when you travel somewhere.

Jingpho : Shara mi de hkrunlam n hkawm shi yang hte hkawm taw ai ten nang hta sadi ra ai lam ni law law nga ai.



English : When you travel, expect things not to be like they are ¨back home¨. Manners, laws, food, traffic, lodging, standards, language and so on will to some extent differ from where you live.

Jingpho : Tinang bu hkawm ai shaloi gara shara hta e mung, tinang na nta zaawn rai na ngu myit mada lam n tawn ga. Sat lawat, jahkrat da ai tara ni, malu masha, mawdaw htinglet, nga jarawp, madang, ga hte kaga lam ni gaw tinang nga ai shara hte shai na re.



English : This is something you always need to keep in mind, to avoid disappointment or perhaps even distaste over local ways to do things.

Jingpho : Dai gaw jauman masha ni nra ai hpe n galaw hkrup na matu (sh) myit npyaw na lam koi gam na matu na myit hta galoi mung matsing da ra ai lam re.



English : Travel agencies have been around since the 19th century. A travel agent is usually a good option for a journey which extends beyond a traveller´s previous experience of nature, culture, language or low-income countries.

Jingpho : Hkrun lam bungli dat kasa hpung ni gaw tsa ban 19 ning hkan na nga taw sai re. Bu hkawm bungli dat kasa wa gaw tinang atsawm n chye ai shingra maka ni, htunghking ningli ni, tsun shaga ga ni nga ai mungdan shing nrai, matsan ai mungdan ni de sa mayu ai nga yang gaw bu hkawm bungli dat kasa ni hpe lata ging ai.



English : Although most agencies are willing to take on most regular bookings, many agents specialise in particular types of travel, budget ranges or destinations.

Jingpho : Hkrun lam lajang hpung law malawng gaw man man tau htet ai hpe sharawng ma timung, kaga ni gaw bu hkawm shara, hkrat ang ai gumhpraw hte hkrun lam hpan ni hpe madung da galaw ma ai.



English : It can be better to use an agent who frequently books similar trips to yours.

Jingpho : Nang na hkum lam zawn lajang ya ai agent hpe lang ai gaw grau kaja na re.



English : Take a look at what trips the agent is promoting, whether on a website or in a shop window.

Jingpho : Website kaw rai rai madun da ai seng kaw rai rai hkrun lam lajang ai ni hpe ni ndau shabra da ai hpe yu yu u.



[Day34]

English : If you want to see the world on the cheap, for necessity, lifestyle or challenge, there are some ways to do that.

Jingpho : Lama na nang mungkan ga hpe manu hpa ai aprat hku (sh) shingjawng nga ai aprat hku mu mayu yang, dai hpe galaw na matu ladat ni nga ai re.



English : Basically, they fall into two categories: Either work while you travel or try and limit your expenses. This article is focused on the latter.

Jingpho : Malawng hku na gaw, hkrang lahkawng hku sha re taw ai: Hkrun lam hkawm let bungli galaw na kun ja gumhpraw hpe shayawm shakut na kun. Ndai sumrai gaw hpang na wa hpe mahta ai re.



English : For those willing to sacrifice comfort, time and predictability to push expenses down close to zero, see minimum budget travel.

Jingpho : Myit htep nga, aten, tau maram mai ai lam ni hpe machyi hkam gwi ai ni a matu, manu laja nkam ma ai sha hpa nma mayu ai ni a matu, gumhpraw jahpan budget shau dik hte hkrun lam hkawm na nga yang npu de yu u.



English : The advice assumes that travellers do not steal, trespass, participate in the illegal market, beg, or otherwise exploit other people for their own gain.

Jingpho : Dai shana laika gaw hkrun lam hkam ni tara nshang ai gat hkan n lagu na, n tawt lai na, n shang lawm na hte nhpyi sha hkawm na matu kaga hku na gaw kaga masha ni a madu rai ni ntsa amyat n tam sha na matu re ngu maram lu ai.



English : An immigration checkpoint is usually the first stop when disembarking from a plane, a ship, or another vehicle.

Jingpho : Masha htawt shang jepjoi shara langai mi gaw law malaw gaw pyenli langai ngai, sanghpaw li langai ngai (sh) kaga madaw ni kaw yu jang shawng hkring ra ai shara re.



English : In some cross-border trains inspections are done on the running train and you should have valid ID with you when boarding one of those trains.

Jingpho : Mungdan lai di wanleng nkau ni hta, jep ai lam ni hpe wanleng ding yang lagat let sha galaw ai, wanleng langai gaw jarik langai du ai ten nang hta tara shang ID nang hte rau nga taw ra na.



English : On night sleeper trains, passports may be collected by the conductor so that you do not have your sleep interrupted.

Jingpho : Shana yup wanleng ntsa kaw gaw, maigan pru hkawm lakmat ni hpe wanleng hpareng wa e zing la da ya na re dai shaloi she nang yup ai shaloi gin jang ai lam nhkrum na re.



English : Registration is an additional requirement for the visa process. In some countries, you must register your presence and address where you are staying with the local authorities.

Jingpho : Mungdan shang lakmat galaw yang mying chyahpan bang ai gaw shajan galaw ra ai lam re. Nkau mungdan hkan gaw, nang nga ai shara kaw na ginra ahkaw ahkang lu hpung ni hte nang nga ai lam hpe jahpan bang ra nga ai.



English : This might require filling out a form with the local police or a visit to the immigration offices.

Jingpho : Dai kaw na pya da dai nrai masha jahpan hta ai rung kaw na laika form hpe htai na ra ai.



English : In many countries with such a law, local hotels will handle the registration (make sure to ask).

Jingpho : Ndai tara nga ai mungdan law malawng hta gaw, mying matsing masat ai lam ni hpe buga ginra na manam jarawp ni galaw ya na re (san na matu hkum malap).



English : In other cases, only those staying outside of tourist accommodations need to register. However, this makes the law much more obscure, so find out beforehand.

Jingpho : Laga lam hta, sa chyai ai ni nga ai shara a shin gan kaw nga ai ni sha mying chyhpang ra ai. Raitim, dai gaw tara hpe grau nkaja shangun wa ai, dai majaw shawng tam u.



English : Architecture is concerned with the design and construction of buildings. The architecture of a place is often a tourist attraction in its own right.

Jingpho : Htingnu gap hpaji gaw nta htingtsip a gaw sharawt lam hte shalat maka hpaji hte seng ai. Dai htingnu gap hpaji hte gaw gap da ai shara gaw shi nan shi byin taw ai lam hpe a yan na bu hkawm masha ni a matu myit shang sha hpa tai ai.



English : Many buildings are quite beautiful to look at and the view from a tall building or from a cleverly-positioned window can be a beauty to behold.

Jingpho : Nta law law gaw yu chyai na matu grai tsawm ai re, ngut na nta tsaw kaw na yu chyai shara (sh) hku wat pat kaw na yu mada ai mung grai tsawm nga ai.



English : Architecture overlaps considerably with other fields including urban planning, civil engineering, decorative arts, interior design and landscape design.

Jingpho : Htingnu gap hpaji gaw mare gaw de ai, mare lang jak hpaji, mawn sumli, kata maka shatawm ai lam hte pa layang maka shatsawm ai lam ni lawm ai kaga bungli dabang ni hte bungli kahtap taw ai.



English : Given how remote many of the pueblos are, you won´t be able to find a significant amount of nightlife without traveling to Albuquerque or Santa Fe.

Jingpho : Spain ga ga ai masha law law nnga mat ai hpang, nang gaw Albuquerque (sh) Santa Fe de ndu hkawm ai sha shana poi ginra lak lai ai namchyim hpe nlu hkam sha na re.



English : However, nearly all of the casinos listed above serve drinks, and several of them bring in name-brand entertainment (primarily the large ones immediately surrounding Albuquerque and Santa Fe).

Jingpho : Kaning rai nme law, hpaida wang ni yawng ngu na daram gaw luhpa ni daw jaw ai hte nkau mi gaw mying loi gumhkawng ai shangwi shapyaw ai baw ni jashawn da ma ai (grau kaba ai ni mahtang gaw Albuquerque hte Santa Fe hpe shing grup da ai).



English : Beware: small-town bars here are not always good places for the out-of-state visitor to hang out.

Jingpho : Sadi u: mare kaji ni hta nga ai tsa seng ni gaw maigan masha ni sa chyai na matu ayan n htap htuk ai shara ni re.



English : For one thing, northern New Mexico has significant problems with drunk driving, and the concentration of intoxicated drivers is high close to small-town bars.

Jingpho : Lam langai a matu, nna dingdung Mexico Nnan kaw tsa lu nna madaw gau ai gaw manghkang kaba re, tsa nang ai madaw gau ai ni gaw mare kahtawng kaw na tsa seng kasha kaw sha myit du ma ai.



English : Unwanted murals or scribble is known as graffiti.

Jingpho : Masha nra ai shadaw kaw ai dai nrai lung kaw ka ni hpe graffiti ngu chye ma ai.



English : While it´s far from a modern phenomenon, most people probably associate it with youth vandalizing public and private property using spray paint.

Jingpho : Ndai gaw daini na prat mabyin masa ni kaw na tsan mat wa ai aten hta masha law malawng gaw ndai hpe ramma ni a shawa hte seng ai arung arai dum nta ni hpe jahten kau ya ai lam hte dinghkrai hte seng ai arung arai ni hpe dumtsit tsi hte sumla tsi chya ai lam hta jai lang ai lam ni hte shabung kau ya nhten.



English : However, nowadays there are established graffiti artists, graffiti events and ¨legal¨ walls. Graffiti paintings in this context often resemble artworks rather than illegible tags.

Jingpho : Raitim, ya ten hta graffiti ninghkring, graffiti lamang ngut nna tara shaing ai shakum ni hpe hpang wa ai. Graffiti sumla ka ai gaw tara nshang ai hta sumla hpanji ni hpe mahkawng wa ai.



English : Boomerang throwing is a popular skill that many tourists want to acquire.

Jingpho : Gawngwai laknak gabai ai lam gaw mungkan bu hkawm masha grai law wa hkaja la mayu ai mying gumhkawng ai kungkyang lam langai mi rai nga ai.



English : If you want to learn throwing a boomerang that comes back to your hand, make sure you have a suitable boomerang for returning.

Jingpho : Lama na nang, gawngwai laknak kabai sharin mayu ai rai yang, kaja htap hkuk manu ai hpe lang u.



English : Most boomerangs available in Australia are in fact non-returning. It is best for beginners to not try throwing in windy

Jingpho : Australia hta mai lu ai Boomerang malawng gaw kaja nga yang bai nhtang nwa ai baw re. Nnan lang hpang ai ni a matu kaja dik gaw nbung bung ai ten nkabai yang kaja na re.



English : A Hangi Meal is cooked in a hot pit in the ground.

Jingpho : Hangi Lusha langai hpe ga kata na kahtet ai nhkun kaw shadu ai.



[Day35]

English : The pit is either heated with hot stones from a fire, or in some places geothermal heat makes areas of ground naturally hot.

Jingpho : Dai nhkun gaw wan hte kahtet ai nlung hte nat kahtet da ai nhkun mi rai yang, dai nrai lamu ga nan shi shi kahtet ai shara re taw ai nhkun re.



English : The hangi is often used to cook a traditional roast style dinner.

Jingpho : Htunghking hte seng ai kakang da ai malu masha shana shat hpe shadu kachyawng ai hta law malawng gaw hangi hpe lang ai.



English : Several places in Rotorua offer geothermal hangi, while other hangi can be sampled in Christchurch, Wellington and elsewhere.

Jingpho : Kaga hangi ni hpe X´stu Naw ku jawng, Wellington hte kaga shara hkan sha mai lu ai rai tim, Rootua a shara law law kaw geothermal hangi ni hpe jaw nga ai.



English : MetroRail has two classes on commuter trains in and around Cape Town: MetroPlus (also called First Class) and Metro (called Third Class).

Jingpho : MetroRail hta dingyang hkawm wanleng hte Cape Mare kaba grup hkawm ai wan leng ngu dum hkum hpan lahkawng nga ai: MetroPlus (Nambat langai Dum hkum ngu mung tsun ai) hte Metro (Nambat masum Dum hkum ngu tsun ai).



English : MetroPlus is more comfortable and less crowded but slightly more expensive, though still cheaper than normal metro tickets in Europe.

Jingpho : MetroPlus wanleng gaw zing ai re nna masha nau nhpring chyat ai re rai timung, Europa dan na yu maya metro lakmat ni hta grau nna manu hkyem sa ai re tim, shi gaw kachyi myi grau gaw manu hpu ai re.



English : Every train has both MetroPlus and Metro coaches; the MetroPlus coaches are always on the end of the train nearest Cape Town.

Jingpho : Wanleng shagu gaw MetroPlus hte wanleng gawk ni nga ai re; Metroplus gawk ni gaw galoi mung Cape Town hte ni dik htum ai wanleng a hpang jahtum de nga ai re.



English : Carrying for others - Never let your bags out of your sight, especially when you are crossing international borders.

Jingpho : Kaga ni a rai hpai karum yang, grau nna gaw mungkan ga daga hte seng ai lamu ga jarik ni hpe lai ai shaloi tinang a rai ni hpe tinang myi npu na galoi hkum shamat kau u.



English : You could find yourself being used as a drug carrier without your knowledge, which will land you in a great deal of trouble.

Jingpho : Nang pi n chye dat ai sha nang hpe nanghpam tsi shabra ai wa hku jamjau jamhkau byin hkra jai lang katut ai lam ni byin chye ai.



English : This includes waiting in line, as drug-sniffing dogs could be used at any time without notice.

Jingpho : Namhpan chye manam ai gwi hpe shana ai lam nnga ai gara ten kaw tim mai lang ai zawn ndai gaw kata ta taw ai kaw lawm ai.



English : Some countries have exceedingly draconian punishments even for first time offenses; these can include prison sentences of over 10 years or death.

Jingpho : Nkau mungdan hkan gaw alat shingshawng hku nna ninghkap gasat ai raitimung ari kaba jaw ma ai, dai mara kaw 10 ning hta jan nna htawng jahkrat ai lam (sh) si ari ni du hkra lawm nga ai.



English : Unattended bags are a target for theft and can also attract attention from authorities wary of bomb threats.

Jingpho : Madu nnga ai nhpye ni gaw lagut ni a masat rai nga ai. Dai hta sha n-ga seng ang ai magam ni hpe bawm hte jahkrit shama na hpe hkrit tsang ai lam byin pru na matu myit gang ya nga ai.



English : At home, due to this constant exposure to the local germs, odds are very high that you´re already immune to them.

Jingpho : Ginra shara hkan na ana ni hpe matut manoi tam shapraw wa ai a majaw, nta hkan nang dang hkam jan ngut sai re nga ana zingli ni hpe n-gun jaw ai lam gaw grau tsaw wa nga ai.



English : But in other parts of the world, where the bacteriological fauna are new to you, you´re far more likely to run into problems.

Jingpho : Raiti mung na a matu bacteria jep lam hte seng nna ginra pra dusat nnan naw re nga ai mungkan ga a laga daw chyen ginra ni kaw gaw nang mang hkang kata de grau gat bang katut na zawn re nga ai.



English : Also, in warmer climates bacteria both grow more quickly and survive longer outside the body.

Jingpho : Kahtet ai du hkra ladaw hta bacteria ni gaw grau gaba lawan ai ngut nna masha hkum kaw nrai yang grau na hkra hkrung ma ai.



English : Thus the scourges of Delhi Belly, the Pharaoh´s Curse, Montezuma´s Revenge, and their many friends.

Jingpho : Dai majaw Delhi Belly a damhkawn shingna, Pharaoh a dagam dala, Montezuma a matai htang ai lam hte shanhte a manang grai law wa mi.



English : As with respiratory problems in colder climates, intestinal problems in hot climates are fairly common and in most cases are distinctly annoying but not really dangerous.

Jingpho : Grau kashung ai du hkra ladaw ni hta nsa sa lam manghkang nga chye ai zawn, kahtet ta hta mung pu hte seng ai ana ni law law byin chye nga ai, ngut na mabyin law malawng gaw myit ru hpa rai tim nau gaw ntsang ra ai.



English : If traveling in a developing country for the first time – or in a new part of the world – don´t underestimate the potential culture shock.

Jingpho : Lama na galu kaba sai mungdan ni de alat ningshawng mungkan ga a ginra nnan de bu hkawm ai re yang mai byin wa na htunghking kajawng kaja ai lam ni hpe hkum yu kaji.



English : Many a stable, capable traveler has been overcome by the newness of developing world travel, where many little cultural adjustments can add up quickly.

Jingpho : Ngang kang ai ai hte atsam rawng ai bu hkawm masha grai law hpe htunghking hte seng ai jahkaw la ai lam kasha ni law law wa hpe lawan ladan bang la mai ai mungkan a rawt jat galu kaba wa ai bu hkawm ai lam ning nan ni gaw badang dip la kau sai re.



English : Especially in your initial days, consider splurging on Western-style and -quality hotels, food, and services to help acclimatize.

Jingpho : Grau nna gaw anhte a nnan hpang wa ai nhtoi ni hta, Sinna hkran ni a prat lai kasi lang ai lam hte madang tsaw ai manam jarawp ni, lu sha ni hte nga man wa hkra garum ya na matu galaw daw jau ya ai lam ni a matu gumhpraw jai wa ra na lam hpe myit sawn shalawm ra nga ai.



English : Do not sleep on a mattress or pad on the ground in areas where you do not know the local fauna.

Jingpho : Nang nchye ai jau man ginra ni hkan na ga ntsa na si htun panep wawp wawp re ai panep hkan e nmai yup ai.



English : If you are going to camp out, bring a camp cot or hammock to keep you away from snakes, scorpions and such.

Jingpho : Lama nang camp pru hkawm na re yang, lapu, n-gaw gawk zawn re kaw na makawp lu na matu yup ku kaji sing goi hpai gun u.



English : Fill your home with a rich coffee in the morning and some relaxing chamomile tea at night.

Jingpho : Jahpawt hta na nta ting manu dan ai kaphi lu nna shana gaw chamomile hpalap lu nna shalan shabran u.



English : When you´re on a staycation, you have the time to treat yourself and take a few extra minutes to brew up something special.

Jingpho : Nta makau hkan ban sa la ai lam galaw nga ai shaloi, tinang hkrai nga chyai na matu aten ni grai law nga nna, hpalap hpe laksan lak lak lai lai gayau chyai na matu mung aten nga ai re.



English : If you´re feeling more adventurous, take the opportunity to juice or blend up some smoothies:

Jingpho : Lama na nang grau nna nhkrit ntsang byin mayu ai zawn nga yang, namsi ntsin galaw namsi ntsin ni hpe gayau na ahkaw ahkang hpe la dat u.



English : maybe you´ll discover a simple beverage that you can make for breakfast when you´re back to your daily routine.

Jingpho : ayan na bungli hkrang masa hku bai galaw sa wa ai shaloi, manap lusha a matu tinang hkyen lajang la mai ai yu maya luhpa hpe byin mai yang mu tam wa na re.



[Day36]

English : If you live in a city with a varied drinking culture, go to bars or pubs in neighborhoods you don´t frequent.

Jingpho : Nang tsa chye lu ma ai ladat nga ai myu kaw nga yang, nta makau kaw na tsa seng de sa ai nau nga na re.



English : For those unfamiliar with medical jargon, the words infectious and contagious have distinct meanings.

Jingpho : Tsi hpaji hte seng ai laksan ga ni hpe nmawn shi ai wa a matu gaw, ana kap loi ai (infectious) hte ana kap chye ai (contagious) ngu ai ga si lahkawng gaw lachyum shai ma ai.



English : An infectious disease is one that is caused by a pathogen, such as a virus, bacterium, fungus or other parasites.

Jingpho : Kap bra ana langai gaw hkrung kanu, bacterium, kamu (sh) kaga hkan kap latung zawn re pathogen ana hpe shabyin ya mai ai.



English : A contagious disease is a disease which is easily transmitted by being in the vicinity of an infected person.

Jingpho : Kap chye wa ai ana zinli langai gaw ana kap taw ai masha langai ngai a makau kaw nga nga ai shaloi aloi sha kap wa chye ai baw ana re.



English : Many governments require visitors entering, or residents leaving, their countries to be vaccinated for a range of diseases.

Jingpho : Asuya law law gaw mungdan shang wa ai ni (sh) mungdan na pru ai ni hpe dai mungdan ni hta ana amyu hpan a matu makawp maga tsi tsi ra nga ai.



English : These requirements may often depend on what countries a traveller has visited or intends to visit.

Jingpho : Ndai ra ahkyak ai lam ni gaw bu hkawm masha wa sa na mungdan (sh) sa mayu ai mungdan ni hta mahta ai re.



English : One of strong points of Charlotte, North Carolina, is that it has an abundance of high-quality options for families.

Jingpho : Carolina a dingdung maga rai nga ai Charlotte a hkrak dik htum ai lam ni kaw na langai mi gaw dinghku ni a matu madang tsaw ai lata hpa law law nga ai rai nga ai.



English : Residents from other areas often cite family-friendliness as a primary reason for moving there, and visitors often find the city easy to enjoy with children around.

Jingpho : Laga shara kaw na masha ni dai myu de htawt ai a lachyum gaw, ngut nna sa chyai ai nigaw dai kaw ma ni hte grai pyaw ma ai.



English : In the past 20 years, the amount of child-friendly options in Uptown Charlotte has grown exponentially.

Jingpho : Lai wa sai shaning 20 hta, Charlotte myu kaba hta ma ni pyaw mai ai hpan ni grau grau lawan ladan law htam wa ai.



English : Taxis are not generally used by families in Charlotte, though they can be of some use in certain circumstances.

Jingpho : Taxi mawdaw ni hpe Charlotte na nta masha ni masa lam loi mi hkan sha lang ai raitim, malawng maga gaw nlang ma ai.



English : There is a surcharge for having more than 2 passengers, so this option might be more expensive than necessary.

Jingpho : Bu hkawm masha lahkawng a matu manu shahpu grau hkrat na re, dai majaw ndai hpe lata la ai lam gaw ra ai hta jan nna gumhpraw grau ma na re.



English : Antarctica is the coldest place on Earth, and surrounds the South Pole.

Jingpho : Antarctica gaw mungkan ga ntsa e katsi dik htum ai shara langai rai nna, shi gaw dingda maga de na matu hpe shinggrup tawn da ai re.



English : Tourist visits are costly, demand physical fitness, can only take place in summer Nov-Feb, and are largely limited to the Peninsula, Islands and Ross Sea.

Jingpho : Bu hkawm ai ni gaw ja gumhpraw ma ai, hkum hkrang hkam kaja ra ai, ginhtawng ta Nov-Feb laman sha mai hkawm ai, ngut na zundawn, zunlawng, Ross panglai hkan de sa chyai na matu shadawn masat lam nga ai.



English : A couple of thousand staff live here in summer in some four dozen bases mostly in those areas; a small number stay over winter.

Jingpho : Ginhtawng ta hta dai shara malawng shara mali shi jan hkan bungli galaw masha hking hku na nga ma ai; nshung ta hta gaw masha kachyi mi nga ma ai.



English : Inland Antarctica is a desolate plateau covered by 2-3 km of ice.

Jingpho : Hkyen 2-3 km hte ka´up da ai Antarctika kawng lam gaw shingran katsi ai bumpa layang langai re.



English : Occasional specialist air tours go inland, for mountaineering or to reach the Pole, which has a large base.

Jingpho : Nbungli mahkrum madup hkrun lam hpe bum lung ai ni a matu (sh) grai kaba ai dap nga ai mungkan jahtum du na matu kawng kaw sha galaw wa ai.



English : The South Pole Traverse (or Highway) is a 1600 km trail from McMurdo Station on the Ross Sea to the Pole.

Jingpho : Dingdung Pole Traverse (dai nrai lam kaba) gaw Ross panglai a McMurdo shara kaw na Pole duhkra 1600 km tsan ai re.



English : It´s compacted snow with crevasses filled in and marked by flags. It can only be traveled by specialized tractors, hauling sleds with fuel and supplies.

Jingpho : Dai shara gaw hkyen ni hte hkyen hka lwi hkang ni hte chyu hpring chyat nga nna dawnghkawn hte masat tawn da ai. Dai kaw gaw hpang kaw sau ni gunrai ni htaw na matu leng matut da ai baw hte laksan galaw shapraw da madaw jak ni rau sha mai hkawm sa nga ai.



English : These aren´t very nimble so the trail has to take a long swerve around the Transantarctic Mountains to come onto the plateau.

Jingpho : Ndai ni gaw nau n lawan ai majaw hkrun lam gaw kawng tsaw bumpa de du na matu Transantarctic bum ni makau kaw grai galu hkra magaw kau ra ai.



English : The most common cause for accidents in winter is slippery roads, pavements (sidewalks) and especially steps.

Jingpho : Nshung ta na hkala nba byin chye dik ai lam gaw lam maw hkan, manep lam (masha hkawm lam) hkan, grau nna ninggam ni hta gashawt chye ai re.



English : At a minimum, you need footwear with suitable soles. Summer shoes are usually very slippery on ice and snow, even some winter boots are deficient.

Jingpho : Nlaw htum gaw hkyepdin hte htap htuk ai hkyepdin pa hpun ra na re. Ginhtawng ta hkyepdin ni gaw hkage hte hkyen ni kaw manen ai kashung ta hkyepdin ni pyi gaw naw ningra ai.



English : The pattern should be deep enough, 5 mm (1/5 inch) or more, and the material soft enough in cold temperatures.

Jingpho : Maka kumla gaw 5 mm (1/5 letma) hta jan yang ram la sai, rungrai gaw katsi ai masat shadang hta re yang anya nga sai.



English : Some boots have studs and there is studded add-on equipment for slippery conditions, suitable for most shoes and boots, for the heels or heels and sole.

Jingpho : Nkau buk hkyep din ni gaw hkyepdin laju ni lawm nna kashawt ai ginra matu hte hkyepdin lahtin ni yawng a matu htap htuk manu ai laksan shakap la na hkyepdin laju ni mung nga nga ai.



English : Heels should be low and wide. Sand, gravel or salt (calcium chloride) is often scattered on roads or paths to improve traction.

Jingpho : Lagaw lahtin ni gaw nem nnga dam dam re ging ai. Zaibru, lung sha jum (calcium chloride) ni gaw gang dun n-gun grau nga na matu lam nmaw lam kaji hkan de jahkring hkring bra taw ai.



English : Avalanches are not an abnormality; steep slopes can hold only so much slow, and the excess volumes will come down as avalanches.

Jingpho : Bum ntsa kaw na numri tawng gaw shihkrai numri bum ntsa kaw na dik hkrak wa chye ai baw re.



[Day37]

English : The problem is that snow is sticky, so it needs some triggering to come down, and some snow coming down can be the triggering event for the rest.

Jingpho : Manghkang gaw numri grai hkrat ai lam rai nga ai, dai majaw hkawm sa na matu lam ni hpe galaw la ra nga ai hte kalang marang nuri hkrat ai lam ni gaw lam byin taw chye ai.



English : Sometimes the original trigging event is the sun warming the snow, sometimes some more snowfall, sometimes other natural events, often a human.

Jingpho : Kalang lang dai lamang ni gaw numri ni hpe jan hte shalum ya ai, kalang lang numri grau hkrat ai, kalang lang langa lamang ni hpe masha ni galaw ma ai.



English : A tornado is a spinning column of very low-pressure air, which sucks the surrounding air inward and upward.

Jingpho : Bunghpoi laru gaw nbung na kata de ntsa de na grup yin ma hkra hpe chyup la nna dip n-gun grai nem ai nbung gayin shadawn langai re.



English : They generate high winds (often 100-200 miles/hour) and can lift heavy objects into the air, carrying them as the tornado moves.

Jingpho : Shanhte gaw nbungl grai gawut ai (ayang 100-200 miles/hking) ngut nna rai kaba hpe pi hpai mat ai, magoi ladi nbung laru hkawm ai hta hpai mat ai.



English : They begin as funnels descending from storm clouds, and become ¨tornadoes¨ when they touch the ground.

Jingpho : Shanhte gaw nbung laru kaw na summwi ni hti zawn yu wa ai hku hpang wa nna shanhte ni ga de hkra ai hte gaw bunghpoi laru byin wa ai re.



English : Personal VPN (virtual private network) providers are an excellent way of circumventing both political censorship and commercial IP-geofiltering.

Jingpho : Tingkyeng hte seng ai VPN (Kompyuta matsun hte nga ai dinghkrai kompyuta hkridun) galaw shapraw ya ai ni gaw mung masa jep joi ai lam hte hpaga IP-geofiltering lahkawng yan hpe kaja htum ai hku koi yen ai ladat re.



English : They are superior to web proxies for several reasons: They re-route all Internet traffic, not only http.

Jingpho : Shahte gaw web galaw ai lam hta madi madun lam law law hku na awng dang ai ni re: Shahte gaw http sha n-ga Internet hting let sa taw ai lam yawng hpe bai byeng la ma ai.



English : They normally offer higher bandwidth and better quality of service. They are encrypted and thus harder to spy on.

Jingpho : Ayan shanhte ni grau kaja ai galaw jaw ai hte grau tsaw ai bandwidth jaw ai. Shanhte ga makoi da ai, dai majaw kin-yu yu na yak ai.



English : The media companies routinely lie about the purpose of this, claiming that it is to ¨prevent piracy¨.

Jingpho : Shiga dap ni gaw ¨masha ni a laksan shiga lamang ni hpe makawp maga na matu¨ ngu nna tsun let galoi mung masu nga ai.



English : In fact, region codes have absolutely no effect on illegal copying; a bit-for-bit copy of a disk will play just fine on any device where the original will.

Jingpho : Kaja sha, dai shara kaw na code gaw tara nshang ai re; laga galaw da ai ni ningpawt galaw da ai hpe mai hpaw ai jak kaw mai na re.



English : The actual purpose is to give those companies more control over their markets; it´s all about money spinning.

Jingpho : Teng sha yaw shada lam gaw hpaga hpung ni hpe shanhte a gat lawk ni ntsa ahkang aya grau jaw lu na matu re; ja gumhpraw hpe kyi da shangun ai lam re.



English : Because calls are routed over the Internet, you do not need to use a phone company located where you live or where you travel.

Jingpho : Shaga na matu internet hte sha lajang da ai majaw re, nang sa chyai ai shara dai nrai nga ai shara kaw na hpung hte nshaga ra ai re.



English : There is also no requirement that you obtain a local number from the community in which you live; you can obtain a satellite Internet connection in the wilds of Chicken, Alaska and select a number which claims you´re in sunny Arizona.

Jingpho : Nang nga ai shawa uhpung na buga nambat hpe hkam la pyi nra ai; Alaska, Chicken bum karing na jak shagan jodu internet connection hpe nang mai lu ai dai hpang nang jan pru ai Arizona kaw nga taw ai ngu hpe hpaw tsun ai nambat langai hpe lata u.



English : Often, you have to buy a global number separately that allows PSTN phones to call you. Where the number is from makes a difference for people calling you.

Jingpho : Chyhkring hkring nang hpe shaga na matu PSTN ga shaga jak ahkang jaw da ai san san garan da ai mungkan nambat hpe nang mari ra na. Nang hpe masha ni shaga wa na matu dai nambat gaw jashai da ai shara kaw na du wa ai.



English : Real-time text translator apps – applications that are capable of automatically translating whole segments of text from one language into another.

Jingpho : Real-time ngu ai ga shalai ai apps-applications gaw ga langai kaw na langai de laika yawng hpe lu shalai ya ai.



English : Some of the applications in this category can even translate texts in foreign languages on signs or other objects in the real world when the user points the smartphone towards those objects.

Jingpho : Ndai amyu hpan kaw lawm ai app nkau mi gaw smartphone lang ai wa arai ni hpe dai phone hte shayawng ai ten hta pru wa ai kum ni (sh) arung arai ni hpe maigan ga hku ka da ai laika ni hpe ga gale ya lu nga ai.



English : The translation engines have improved dramatically, and now often give more or less correct translations (and more seldom gibberish), but some care is due, as they still may have gotten it all wrong.

Jingpho : Ga shalai ya ai gaw grai hkrak taw sai re, ngut nna chyhkring hkring jaw ai ni nga ai (ngut nna lachyum npru ai ni law law hpe), raitim shut ai ni yawng nga mat sai majaw nkau mi shpe naw tsang ra ai.



English : One of the most prominent apps in this category is Google Translate, which allows offline translation after downloading the desired language data.

Jingpho : Ndai amyu bawhpan kaw na dan dawng htum app ni kaw na langai gaw, internet kaw na ra sharawng ai ga hpan jahpan lamang ni hpe kaga de htawt la da ngut ai hpang ai internet nra ai sha ga gale ai lam galaw la lu na ahkang jaw ya ai Google ga gale ai lam re.



English : Using GPS navigation apps on your smartphone can be the easiest and most convenient way to navigate when out of your home country.

Jingpho : Na a smartphone kaw GPS lam madun ai app hpe jai lang ai gaw na mungdan na pru mat wa ai ten htawng madun lu n amatu loi dik ai hte manu dik ai app langai re.



English : It can save money over buying new maps for a GPS, or a standalone GPS device or renting one from a car rental company.

Jingpho : Dai gaw GPS a matu lamu ga sumla nnan mari na gumphraw mai mahkawng la ai mawdaw shap sha hpaga hpung kaw na shap mai ai langai hkrai lang GPS mari na matu gumhpraw mai mahkawng la ai.



English : If you don´t have a data connection for your phone, or when it is out of range, their performance can be limited or unavailable.

Jingpho : Lama na nang na phone kaw internet hte matut ya ai lam nnga yang gaw, masat da ai a shinggan de rai taw yang gaw shanhte a bungli galaw ai lam ni gaw shadang masat tawn hkrum mai ai nlu lang wa chye ai re.



English : Every corner store is filled with a confusing array of pre-paid phone cards that can be used from pay phones or ordinary telephones.

Jingpho : Jut seng shagu kaw gumhpraw shawng bang na mai lang ai phone hte mi na telephone ni hta tau gumhpraw bang sha hta nchye na na daram hpring taw ai.



English : While most cards are good for calling anywhere, some specialise in providing favourable call rates to specific groups of countries.

Jingpho : Kat pa yawng ngu na daram shara shagu kaw phone shaga na matu hkrak nga ai shaloi, nkau mungdan uhpung ni gaw grau shaga pyaw na matu phone shaga masat shadang hpe alak mi galaw da ma ai.



English : Access to these services is often through a toll-free telephone number that can be called from most phones without charge.

Jingpho : Ndai galaw jaw ya ai lam ni hpe lu na matu gaw jahpu manu nla ai sha ga shaga jak law malawng kaw na mai shaga ai manu jahpu njaw ra ai ga shaga jak ni hku nna kalang marang mai re.



English : Rules regarding regular photography also apply to video recording, possibly even more so.

Jingpho : Ayan dem ai sumla dem hpaji hte seng ai rip kawp ni mung sumla hkrung dem ai hta mai byin yang grau nna pyi jai lang ai.



[Day38]

English : If just taking a photo of something isn´t allowed, then you shouldn´t even think of recording a video of it.

Jingpho : Sumla pi ngayet shangun yang, sumla hkrung gayet na amtu myit pi hkum myit.



English : If using a drone, check well in advance as to what you are allowed to film and what permits or additional licensing are required.

Jingpho : Lama na jak pyen kem ra lang na re yang, nang hpa sumla ni hpe gayet na ahkang nga ai hte hpa ahkang jaw lakmat (sh) kahtap nna hpa ahkang jaw lakmat ni lu ra ngu ai lam hpe shawng atsawm jep maram yu u.



English : Flying a drone near an airport or over a crowd is almost always a bad idea, even if it´s not illegal in your area.

Jingpho : Drone (lamu ntsa pyen hkawm ai jak) ni hpe nang nga taw ai shara kaw tara nshang yang pi, nbungli daru makau hkan shing nrai, shawa hpawng ntsa hkan pyen hkawm ai gaw n galaw ging ai lam re.



English : Nowadays air travel is only rarely booked directly through the airline without first searching and comparing prices.

Jingpho : Ya prat hta pyenli hku hkawm sa ai hta pyenli company na manu hte ading tawk shawng sawk tam nna manu shing daw ai lam nnga ai daram kalang ta lakmat htet la ma ai.



English : Sometimes the same flight can have vastly differing prices at various agregators and it pays to compare search results and to also look at the website of the airline itself before booking.

Jingpho : Kalang lang gaw internet kungpani law ai majaw pyenli manu grai shai hkat ma sai, sawk tam mahtai ni hpe shingdaw nna nhtet shi yang dai pyenli kungpani na website kaw na hte shingdaw nna gumhpraw jaw ai.



English : While you may not need a visa for short visits to certain countries as a tourist or for business, going there as an international student generally requires a longer stay than going there just as a casual tourist.

Jingpho : Kaga mungdan nkau mi ni de bu hkawm (sh) amu bungli a matu jahkring jahkra hkawm ai rai yang visa nra ai rai tim jawng ma hku nna sa du na rai yang gaw nga na aten grau galu na rai nga ai.



English : In general, staying in any foreign country for an extended period of time will require you to obtain a visa in advance.

Jingpho : Law malawng, laga mungdan kaw grai na nga yang visa shawng galaw na matu ra ai.



English : Student visas generally have different requirements and application procedures from normal tourist or business visas.

Jingpho : Jawng ma visa ni gaw laga hpaga dai nrai sa chyai ai visa galaw ai lam ngut nna ra ai madi shadaw laika ni nbung ma ai.



English : For most countries, you will need an offer letter from the institution you wish to study at, and also evidence of funds to support yourself for at least the first year of your course.

Jingpho : Mungdan law malawng kaw gaw, nang gaw nang hka ja na matu yaw shada ai hpung kaba kaw na shaga laika hpe lu ra na re nna shau htum alat ningshawng shaning hpe madi shadaw na ja gumhpraw sakse mung ra na re.



English : Check with the institution, as well as the immigration department for the country you wish to study in for detailed requirements.

Jingpho : Ahkri ahkrai ra ahkyak ai lam ni hpe nang sa mayu ai mungdan a masha htawt shang dap hte arau hpung kaba ni hku nna jep yu ra ai.



English : Unless you are a diplomat, working overseas generally means that you will have to file income tax in the country you are based in.

Jingpho : Nang sumtsan kasa sha nre yang gaw, mungdan shinggan kaw bungli galaw yang nang nga ai mundan hta hkan nna shang gumhpraw a ahkun hpe jaw bang ra ngu lachyum re.



English : Income tax is structured differently in different countries, and the tax rates and brackets vary widely from one country to another.

Jingpho : Shang gumhpraw ahkun hta ai lam gaw mungdan langai hte langai nbung ai re, ngut nna ahkun manu ni gaw mungdan hte langai grai shai ma ai.



English : In some federal countries, such as the United States and Canada, income tax is levied both at the federal level and at the local level, so the rates and brackets can vary from region to region.

Jingpho : Ginjaw asuya hte mungdaw ni lapran ahkang aya karan masat la ai mungdan, United States hte Canada zawn re ai mungdan nkau mi hkan gaw, shang ai hkangse hpe gaw ginjaw asuya hte seng ai madang hte jau man hte seng ai madang lahkawng yan kaw na hta ai re, dai majaw masat manu hte masat ai lam ni gaw ginra hte ginra shai hkat na re.



English : While immigration check is usually absent or a formality when you arrive in your homeland, customs control can be a hassle.

Jingpho : Na mungdan de bai du wa ai shaloi mying jahpan jep ai lam hta jep ai nga ai (sh) njep ai ma ga ai, ahkun jep shara gaw ndang kalang mai byin wa ai.



English : Make sure you know what you can and cannot bring in and declare anything over the legal limits.

Jingpho : Nang lu galaw ai hte nlu galaw ai hpe chye hkra galaw nna hpa hpe mung tara shang masat masa hku nna ndau shana u.



English : The easiest way to get started in the business of travel writing is to hone your skills on an established travel blog website.

Jingpho : Bu hkawm laika ka ai hpaga yumga hpe hpang lu na matu grai loi dik ai lam gaw nang na kungkyang ai lam hpe hpang tawn da sai bu hkawm ai lam hte seng ai blog internet laika man hkan garang na la matu rai nga ai.



English : After you become comfortable with formatting and editing on the web, then later, you might create your own website.

Jingpho : Nang gaw web ntsa format jahkrat ai hte jep sharai ai hpe manu ai hku chye wa ai hpang de gaw, na a website hpe nang nang gin shalat wa mai ai.



English : Volunteering while travelling is a great way to make a difference but it´s not just about giving.

Jingpho : Hkrum lam hkawm let daw jau ai lam gaw sak jaw ai lam sha nre shai ai lam ni hpe mung galaw lu ai re.



English : Living and volunteering in a foreign country is a great way to get to know a different culture, meet new people, learn about yourself, get a sense of perspective and even gain new skills.

Jingpho : Maigan mungdan kaw shanu nga ai hte ap nawng dawjau ai lam galaw ai gaw nbung ai htunghkring ni hpe chye chyang na matu, masha ningnan ni hpe hkrum shaga lu na matu, tinang hkum tinang hkaja la lu na matu, ningmu chyechyang ai lam lu na matu hte hpaji hta kunglet ai lam ningnan ni lu na matu pyi grai laklai ai ladat re.



English : It can also be a good way to stretch a budget to allow a longer stay somewhere since many volunteer jobs provide room and board and a few pay a small salary.

Jingpho : Dai gaw gumhpraw njaw ra ai sha grau na hkra lu nga na matu shara langai ngai mai lu nga ai rai nhtawm bungli galaw na nga na gawk jaw ai lam ni hte nkau mi hkan gaw shata shabrai kachyi mi pyi jaw nga ai.



English : Vikings used the Russian waterways to get to the Black Sea and Caspian Sea. Parts of these routes can still be used. Check possible need for special permits, which may be difficult to get.

Jingpho : Viking ni gaw Black Sea hte Caspian sea de du hkra sa na matu Rusia hka lam hpe jai lai wa ai re. Ndai lam a dawchyen nkau myi gaw naw mai jai lang ai re. Lu na matu grai yak ai baw laksan ahkang jaw lakmat a matu byin mai ai jep jen ai lam ni gaw galaw ra na re.



English : The White Sea–Baltic Canal connects the Arctic Ocean to the Baltic Sea, via Lake Onega, Lake Ladoga and Saint Petersburg, mostly by rivers and lakes.

Jingpho : Panglai Hpraw - Baltic Canal gaw hka nu hte nawng malawng kaw na lwi wa ai Onega Nawng, Ladoga Nawng hte Saint Petersburg hkan na sha re nna Arctic Nammuk dara kaw na Baltic Panglai hte matut da ai.



English : Lake Onega is also connected to Volga, so coming from the Caspian Sea through Russia is still possible.

Jingpho : Onega nawng gaw Volga hte matut da ai majaw Caspian panglai hpe lai nna Russia de sa wa ai lam gaw byin mai nga ai.



English : Be assured that once you hit the marinas everything will be pretty obvious. You will meet other boat hitchhikers and they will share their information with you.

Jingpho : Kaja wa teng hkra di u, nang li daru hpe dip hkra dat sai hte gaw yawng yawng gaw grai dan dawng wa na re. Nang laga sanghpaw hkan jawng ai masha ni hte hkrum wa na re ai hte shanhte ni shanhte a shiga ni hpe nang hpe garan gachyan ya na ra ai.



English : Basically you´ll be putting up notices offering your help, pacing the docks, approaching people cleaning their yachts, trying to make contact with sailors in the bar, etc.

Jingpho : Madung gaw nang garum ningtum jaw ya ai lam ni, sanghpaw li hpe madun dan ai lam ni, masha ni shanhte na sanghpaw li hpe kashin shatsawm taw ai lam ni, seng ni hkan shanghpaw li masha ni hte matut mahkai na shakut nga ai lam zawn re ni hpe madun ai ndau laika ni hpe nang law law galaw wa ra na re.



[Day39]

English : Try to talk to as many people as possible. After a while everyone will know you and will give you hints as to which boat is looking for someone.

Jingpho : Byin mai ai daram masha law law hte ga shaga lu na matu shakut u. Kachyi mi na ai hpang masha shagu gaw nang hpe chye wa nna gara sang hpaw li gaw masha tam nga ai lam ga machyan ni hpe nang hpe jaw wa na re.



English : You should choose your Frequent Flyer airline in an alliance carefully.

Jingpho : Nang ayan jawn ai nbungli hpe sha nang a tsawm sha lata ra ai re.



English : Although you may think it is intuitive to join the airline you fly most, you should be aware that privileges offered are often different and frequent flyer points may be more generous under a different airline in the same alliance.

Jingpho : Nang ayang jawn ai nbungli hpe nang chye la ta tim, shanhte gaw ai lam ni gaw shai ai hpe chye ra ai ngut nna lam langai sha sa ai nbungli nbung ai hta jawn ai ni gaw grau ahkyak ai re.



English : Airlines such as Emirates, Etihad Airways, Qatar Airways & Turkish Airlines have greatly expanded their services to Africa, and offer connections to many major African cities at competitive rates than other European airlines.

Jingpho : Emirates, Etihad Airways, Qatar Airways hte Turkish Airlines zawn re pyenli hpaga hpung ni gaw Africa de shanhte galaw lajang ai lam ni hpe grai nan maden jat wa ai, re nna Africa mare kaba ni de kaga Uropa pyenli hpaga hpung ni hta shingjawng nna manu ni grau hkyam sa ai hku galaw wa ma sai.



English : Turkish Airlines flies to 39 destinations in 30 African countries as of 2014.

Jingpho : Turkish Ailines gaw 2014 ning hta Afrika mungdan 30 na shara 39 de htaw sa pyen hkawm lu sai.



English : If you have additional travel time, check to see how your total fare quote to Africa compares with a round-the-world fare.

Jingpho : Lama na nang hkawm chyai na aten shajan lu ai rai yang, Afrika de sa hkawm ai jarit hte mungkan ting gayin hkawm ai jarit shingdaw yu na matu sa wa yu u.



English : Don´t forget to add in the extra costs of additional visas, departure taxes, ground transportation, etc. for all those places outside of Africa.

Jingpho : Africa shingan na dai shara yawng a matu mungdan shang lakmat, pru wa hkang se, ga ntsa htaw wa htaw sa lam, sh.r.n a matu shajan hkrat na manu ni hpe bang shalawm na hkum malap.



English : If you want to fly around the world completely in the Southern Hemisphere, the choice of flights and destinations is limited due to the lack of transoceanic routes.

Jingpho : Southern Hemisphere hte mungkan ting pyan mayu ai rai yang, nbungli hte sa na shara hpe grai lata ra na re hpajaw nga yang transoceanic lam nau nga ai majaw re.



English : No airline alliance covers all three ocean crossings in the Southern Hemisphere (and SkyTeam covers none of the crossings).

Jingpho : Gara pyenli hpung mung dingda maga na Hemisphere kaw na panglai matsum hpe nlu lai ma ai (hte SkyTeam hpung mung nlu lai ma ai).



English : However, Star Alliance covers everything except the eastern South Pacific from Santiago de Chile to Tahiti, which is a LATAM Oneworld flight.

Jingpho : Hpa wa rai rai, Star Alliance gaw Santiago de Chile to Tahiti ngu ai LATAM mungkan nbungli kaw na Dingda Pacific a sinpraw maga hta lai nna shara shagu de shara la da ai.



English : This flight is not the only option if you want to skip the South Pacific and the west coast of South America. (see below)

Jingpho : Lama na nang dingda pacific hte dingda amerika a sinna hkinggau mayan hpe lai kau mayu ai rai yang, lata la mai ai lam gaw ndai pyenli hkawm ai lam sha nre. (Lawu kaw yu u)



English : In 1994, the ethnically Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan waged war against the Azeris.

Jingpho : 1994 hta, Azerbaijan a Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh ginra na myu bawng sang gaw Azeris hpe majan baw masai.



English : With Armenian backing, a new republic was created. However, no established nation - not even Armenia - officially recognizes it.

Jingpho : Amenian a madi shadaw ai n-gun hte gumsan magam mungdan ningnan langai gaw de sa lai wa ma ai. Rai timung, daw de hpang na n-ngut ai mundan, Armenia tara shang nmasat ai mungdan rai nga ai.



English : Diplomatic arguments over the region continue to mar relations between Armenia and Azerbaijan.

Jingpho : Armenia hte Azerbaijan ni a shara kashun hkat ai lam gaw grai yu ntsawm wa nga ai.



English : The Canal District (Dutch: Grachtengordel) is the famous 17th-century district surrounding the Binnenstad of Amsterdam.

Jingpho : Canal Ginwang (Dutch: Grachtengordel) gaw Amsterdam a Binnenstad grup yin hkan tsa ban 17 na mying gumhkawng ai ginwang langai re.



English : The whole district is designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site for its unique cultural and historical value, and its property values are among the highest of the country.

Jingpho : Dai ginra yawng UNESCO mungkan Sali Wunli a matu shalat maka da hkrum ai lam gaw dai shara a laklai ai htunghking labau a manu ni gaw dai mungdan hta tsaw dik htum ai sutgan arung arai ni rai nga ai majaw mung rai nga ai.



English : Cinque Terre, which means Five Lands, comprises the five small coastal villages of Riomaggiore, Manarola, Corniglia, Vernazza and Monterosso located in the Italian region of Liguria.

Jingpho : Kawng Manga ngu lachyum pru ai Cinque Terre gaw Riomaggiore, Manarola, Corniglia, Vernazza hte Italy ginra a Liguria kaw nga ai Monterosso ni ngu ai hkinggau mayan mare kaji manga pawng hpawm da ai mare re.



English : They are listed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.

Jingpho : Ndai shara ni gaw UNESCO Mungkan a Sali wunli Jahpan hta lawm nga ai.



English : Over the centuries, people have carefully built terraces on the rugged, steep landscape right up to the cliffs that overlook the sea.

Jingpho : Lai wa sai century law law hta, masha ni gaw hkraw ni hpe atsawm lung mai ai shara ni shachyaw, lung mai ai lakang ni galaw nna panglai hpe mu lu na matu galaw ma ai.



English : Part of its charm is the lack of visible corporate development. Paths, trains and boats connect the villages, and cars cannot reach them from the outside.

Jingpho : Dai tsawm htap ai lam gaw rawt jat wa ai hpe mu na yak ai lam mung langai rai nga ai. Lam ni, wanleng ni hte hkali ni dai mare ni hte matut tawn ai rai nna mawdaw ni chyawm gaw shinggan hku nmai du nga ai.



English : The varieties of French which are spoken in Belgium and Switzerland differ slightly from the French spoken in France, though they are similar enough to be mutually intelligible.

Jingpho : Belgium hte Switzerland mungdan kaw shaga ai French ga gaw France mungdan kaw tsun ai French ga hte kachyi mi shai ma ai, raitim atsawm sha chye na hkat ma ai.



English : In particular, the numbering system in French-speaking Belgium and Switzerland has some slight peculiarities that are different from the French spoken in France, and the pronunciation of some words is slightly different.

Jingpho : Tup hkrak hta gaw Belgium hte Switzerland na French ga shaga ai ni gaw France mungdan na French ga shaga ai hte kaji mi shai hkat nna gasi nkau nsen shapraw ai hta mung loi shai ma ai.



English : Nevertheless, all French-speaking Belgians and Swiss would have learned standard French in school, so they would be able to understand you even if you used the standard French numbering system.

Jingpho : Raitim mung, French ga tsun ai Belgian hte Swiss ni yang jawng kaw French madang jat jat hpe sharin ra ai re, dai rai jang she shanhte gaw nang lang ai French madang nambat ni hpe chye na ra re.



English : In many parts of the world, waving is a friendly gesture, indicating ¨hello.¨

Jingpho : Mungkan a daw chyen grai law wa mi hta gaw lata ding si ai lam gaw hku hkau ai hku kumla madun ai re nna ¨hello¨ ngu nna shakram ai lam hpe mung madi madun nga ai.



English : However, in Malaysia, at least among the Malays in rural areas, it means ¨come over,¨ similar to the index finger bent toward the body, a gesture which is used in certain Western countries, and should be used only for that purpose.

Jingpho : Raitimung, Malaysia kaw, buga ginra hkan na yawm htum Malay masha ni lapran hkan gaw, yunglat hpe hkum maga magaw dan ai de lachyum gaw ¨sa wa u le¨ ngu nna, Sinna mung hkan gaw dai hpe lama ma yaw shada ai hku sha lang ging ai re.



[Day40]

English : Similarly, a British traveller in Spain may mistake a wave goodbye involving the palm facing the waver (rather than the person being waved at) as a gesture to come back.

Jingpho : Maren sha, British kaw na Spain de sa chyai ai ni mung lata man hpe shawng de nada nna wa sa na yaw ngu chye tsun ma ai (ta madun ai wa hpe lata galam dan ai hta) bai sa wa na matu lata galam dan ai.



English : Auxiliary languages are artificial or constructed languages created with the intent of facilitating communication between peoples who would otherwise have difficulty communicating.

Jingpho : Auxiliary laika gaw galaw dai ai dai nrai shachyaw da ai laika gaw ga chye na hkat na yak taw ai masha lapran hta chye na hkat na matu galaw da ai re.



English : They are separate from lingua francas, which are natural or organic languages that become dominant for one reason or another as means of communication between speakers of other languages.

Jingpho : Shanhte hpe gaw ga apai ai ngu ai kaw na garan da ma ai, dai ni gaw shaga ai wa hte kaga ga ni lapran chye na hkat na matu lam langai (sh) lahkawng nga ai ningpaw ga ni re.



English : In the heat of the day, travelers can experience mirages that give the illusion of water (or other things).

Jingpho : Jan kahtet ai shani hta, bu hkawm masha ni gaw hka ( (sh) kaga arai ni) a myit hkalem ai lam hpe byin shangun ai nbung kahtet nna shingna galai ai lam ni hpe hkrum katut wa chye nga ai.



English : These can be dangerous if the traveler pursue the mirage, wasting precious energy and remaining water.

Jingpho : Hkrun lam hkawm ai ni gaw, manu dan ai n-gun ni hpe shama kau nna hka hpe ngam da ai lam gaw hkrit tsang hpa re.



English : Even the hottest of deserts can become extremely cold at night. Hypothermia is a real risk without warm clothing.

Jingpho : Kahtet dik ai zai bru jang hkan pyi gaw shana rai yang na chying katsi chye ai. Hkum lum shadang mala la yawm ai lam gaw palawng lum nlawm yang kaja nan hkrit tsang ra ai.



English : In summer, especially, you´ll need to watch out for mosquitoes if you decide to hike through the rainforest.

Jingpho : Ginhtawng ta hta marang maling hkan lagaw lam hku bu hkawm yang gaw jigrawg ni hpe sadi ra na re.



English : Even if you´re driving through the subtropical rainforest, a few seconds with the doors open while you get inside the vehicle is enough time for mosquitoes to get in the vehicle with you.

Jingpho : Lama na nang gaw kahtet yawm ginra re ai marang maling de mawdaw gau wa yang, mawdaw kata shang wa ai ten second sha chyinghka gan hpaw da ai gaw dai mawdaw kata ji grawng ni atsawm shang mai nga ai.



English : Bird flu, or more formally avian influenza, can infect both birds and mammals.

Jingpho : U waw waw ai (sh) grau malawng tsun ai u li mak hkalawng gaw u ni hte chyu jaw dusat dumyeng hta kap chye ai.



English : Fewer than a thousand cases have ever been reported in humans, but some of them have been fatal.

Jingpho : Shinggyim masha ni hta gaw ndai ana ni hkying hku pi n du ai hpe mu lu ai, rai timung, nkau mi gaw si wa mai ai baw ni re.



English : Most have involved people who work with poultry, but there is also some risk to birdwatchers.

Jingpho : Law malawng gaw u hkai byek rem ai bungli galaw ai ni lawm ai, raitim u yu ai bungli hta hkrit ra ai baw nkau mung lawm ai.



English : Typical for Norway are steep fjords and valleys that suddenly give way to a high, more or less even plateau.

Jingpho : Norway gaw kadawng ai panglai hkai gai hte kadit hkam wam lai lai nna, grau nna gaw bumpa layang hta grau tsaw ai shara re.



English : These plateaus are often referred to as ¨vidde¨ meaning a wide, open treeless space, a boundless expanse.

Jingpho : Kalang maran ndai bumpa layang ni gaw dam lada ai, hpun ni n-nga na mahka taw ai ginra, shadawn masat nlu ai dam lada shara ngu na lachyum nga ai ¨vidde¨ zawn re ai hpe madi madun ya nga ai.



English : In Rogaland and Agder they are usually called ¨hei¨ meaning a treeless moorland often covered in heather.

Jingpho : Rogaland hte Agder hta shanhte gaw ayan na ¨hei¨ ngu shaga ai, lachyum gaw heta hpun ka´up da ai hpun ntu ai prang ga ngu ai re.



English : The glaciers are not stable, but flow down the mountain. This will cause cracks, crevasses, which may be obscured by snow bridges.

Jingpho : Hkyen hka ni gaw zim sha nnga ai nna bum ntsa kaw lwi hrat wa chye ai. Ndai lam ni gaw hkyen mahkrai ni hpe lim kau nna ga ai lam ni, ga kaprang ai lam ni byin wa chye ai.



English : The walls and roofs of ice caves can collapse and cracks can get closed.

Jingpho : Hka ge lung pu a shakum ni, n-gaw ni gaw hkrat kadawng daw mai ai hte de a ga hkang ni gaw rau majaw mat mai ai.



English : At the edge of glaciers huge blocks break loose, fall down and perhaps jump or roll farther from the edge.

Jingpho : Hkatawng mali hka ndung kaw na tawng kaba kaw ga hkrat ai, dik hkrat ai ngut nna ndung kaw na gumhtawn dai nrai taleng wa ai rai na re.



English : The tourist season for the hill stations generally peaks during the Indian summer.

Jingpho : India kaw na kahtet ta hta sa chyai ai ni a matu bum nta kaw na shara de sa ai.



English : However, they have a different kind of beauty and charm during winter, with many hill stations receiving healthy amounts of snow and offering activities such as skiing and snowboarding.

Jingpho : Raitm imung, shanhte gaw kashung ta hta hkyen hkrat shadang hkrak ai bum dabang ni hte hkyen pa ntsa hpun pyen jawn ai lam hte hkyen jawn ai lam zawn re ai ra sharawng awng bungli ni jaw ya ai lam ni rau nbung ai tsawm ai lam hte ra sharawng hpa hpan ni lu ma ai.



English : Only a few airlines still offer bereavement fares, which slightly discount the cost of last-minute funeral travel.

Jingpho : Nkau nbungli ni sha manu naw hpu taw ma ai, masha tsi ai hkrum lam a hpang chyhtum aten a manu sha kachyi mi shayawm ya ai.



English : Airlines that offer these include Air Canada, Delta Air Lines, Lufthansa for flights originating from the U.S. or Canada, and WestJet.

Jingpho : U.S dai nrai Canada, ngut nna WestJet kaw na npawt wa ai Air Canada, Delta Air Line, Lufthansa ni lawm ai ni hpe jaw da ai nbungli bungli.



English : In all cases, you must book by phone directly with the airline.

Jingpho : Lam shagu hta, tau hkrau lakmat mari ai lam hpe sin-yu ga (phone) hte dantawk tau htet ra ai.



Languages

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